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以鼓励企业家创业精神的体制战略 毕业设计(译文)

时间:2017-09-08 22:58来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
毕业设计(译文) 题目名称:中小服装企业运营模式浅析 院系名称:服装与艺术学院 班 级:服装设计与工程 2008年6月 Institutional strategies to encourage entrepreneurship. Successful small business
本文服装关键字:毕业设计(1)
  毕业设计(译文)
 
 
 
 
题目名称:中小服装企业运营模式浅析
院系名称:服装与艺术学院
班    级:服装设计与工程
    
 
2008年 6月

Institutional strategies to encourage entrepreneurship.
Successful small business development requires overcoming many hurdles.  The specific hurdles that are most critical to overcome vary from community to community.  Nonprofits that successfully encourage entrepreneurship often adopt an institutional strategy that focuses on overcoming one or more particular barriers.  While there are many specific institutional strategies, they may be grouped into the following six approaches:
1. Technical assistance
2. Access to markets
3. Links to social networks
4. Cluster or sector development
For each of these strategies, the core practices described earlier can be thought of as the “engine inside” that helps to power the trategies.  No matter which strategy the institution is employing, its ability to help entrepreneurs to succeed will depend critically on how well it implements the core practices described earlier: maintaining a focus on markets and customers, developing their work-forces, and forging innovative partnerships. This section will describe each of the six strategies, and provide several case studies illustrating them. [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]
1. Technical assistance and training
Organizations that offer technical assistance and training programs to small businesses aim to enhance the management skills of current and would-be entrepreneurs and/or their employees.  The goals and delivery mechanisms for the technical assistance and training
programs vary with the business skills targeted.  For technical assistance, the staff of a small business development organization or consultants they hire will typically provide direct advice and hands-on support to business owners. Conversely, rather than offering a one-on-one experience, small business development organizations usually provide training programs to a group of students or through virtual, self-directed courses.  Yet, technical assistance and training programs share a similar objective: to help business owners and/or their employees acquire various skills that may include those needed:
*  In specific types of businesses (e.g., manufacturing or retailing)

【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


*  By specific classes of entrepreneurs (e.g., minorities or women)
*  At various levels in organizations (e.g., executive )
*  To perform specific functions (e.g., marketing or accounting)
A wide variety of organizations provide technical assistance and training programs for small businesses, including centers affiliated with the Small Business Administration and nonprofit organizations such as the Service Corps of Retired Executives (SCORE).  Community colleges and universities provide training in business skills as part of their core curricula and through internship and community outreach programs.  Microenterprise development programs typically include technical assistance and training in business skills among their services.  Organizations focused on minority entrepreneurs also provide training.  
Example 1: Southeastern Community College Small Business Center
The Center, funded through the North Carolina Community College System, provides training, education, and support to the owners (or potential owners) and employees of small businesses. The Center is home to:

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


 *  The Rural Entrepreneurship through Action Learning (REAL) program, which gives hands-on training to adult students
*  A Business Development Center, a small business incubator housing several small entrepreneurial enterprises and a venture capital company
*  A Microenterprise Loan Program
Most recently, the Center became a pilot demonstration site for the national Assets for Independent Demonstration program, which offers IDAs, financial literacy training, and financial counseling.
Example 2: The Enterprise Center
The Enterprise Center (TEC) is a 15-year-old, Philadelphia-based nonprofit organization established to accelerate minority ownership of businesses.  It originally started as a business incubator, providing technical assistance to small business owners whose enterprises were physically located in TEC’s then state-of-the-art facility.  Due to changes in information and telecommunications technologies, TEC’s initial “place-based” business development strategy evolved into a “virtual” one, and the number of businesses it served expanded from 30 to 130.  

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


Today TEC uses an “outpatient” approach, offering a “coaching strategy” to its clients.  It assembles a team of professional advisors—attorneys, accountants, technology experts, marketing consultants, and experienced executives—who assess the strengths and weaknesses of the entrepreneur, his/her revenue model, and the overall organizational structure of the enterpfise.The incubator facility is now used for face-to-face meetings between these advisors and their entrepreneur clients.  
Example 3: GARMENT 2000
GARMENT 2000 started in the mid-1980s as a consortium of San Francisco Bay Area apparel-sector stakeholders, including manufacturers and workers.  It was an industrial revitalization effort aimed at strengthening the competitiveness of the sector with a three-part strategy: workforce development to improve workers’ skills, knowledge, and abilities; workplace development to improve companies’ processes and productivity; and demonstration and simulation to provide new production, management, and communication technologies in the manufacturing process.  It was housed on a campus of the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), which hosted training activities and demonstrations at its state-of-the-art “Teaching Factory.”  Over 20 years GARMENT 2000 provided training to more than 3,000 participants from 300 local apparel companies, mostly women who had recently migrated from China.   【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]
With the advent of NAFTA and the impact of globalization, apparel manufacturing jobs in this country gradually disappeared.  The original mission of GARMENT 2000 no longer met the needs of the sector.  The program evolved into a design studio for startup and small apparel companies.  In addition, building on its experience with GARMENT 2000, CCSF created the San Francisco Center for Applied Competitive Technologies, which provides similar supportive services to stakeholders in the manufacturing and biotechnology sectors.
2. Access to markets
Programs that create access to markets focus on developing links between small businesses and major markets.  Such programs typically aim to help a specific type of business: those in certain neighborhoods or sections of cities, operating in specific industries, or owned and controlled by certain types of entrepreneurs.
Example 1: The National Minority Supplier Development Council (NMSDC)
NMSDC is a membership organization created by major purchasing companies to help meet their needs for reliable, easy access to high-quality, minority-owned i rms.  By providing a direct link between corporate America and minority-owned businesses, this 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
organization has created a clear channel through which small companies gain access to mainstream economic markets.  At its core, NMSDC manages this process by certifying minority business enterprises, maintaining a database of certified ed businesses, and referring corporate buyers of minority suppliers capable of providing quality goods and services at competitive prices. The NMSDC Network includes a national office in New York and 39 regional councils across the country.  These councils certify more than 15,000 minority owned businesses and match them with NMSDC’s 3,500 corporate members (which include most of America’s largest companies as well as universities, hospitals, and other buying institutions).
Example 2: West Central Initiative (WCI)
Started in 1986, WCI is based in rural Minnesota, a region that depends on a highly volatile agricultural economy.  The traditional economic structure of the region changed as the number of farms shrank through consolidations and the number of people employed in farming rapidly declined.  WCI decided to build a manufacturing economy in its region in order to create wealth, rather than redistributing it through social services or attracting it through tourism.  It initially focused on training workers for specific physical technologies, but soon realized that to be competitive in a global marketplace, local manufacturers needed to restructure how they did business.  
【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

The strategy it developed combines workforce training with business reengineering.  WCI now serves a variety of roles, acting at times as a community foundation and at times a community development organization, offering grants, development financing, and technical assistance.  Companies emerge from WCI’s business development program more adept in the use of productivity-enhancing technologies, and thus better able to compete in the global economy and provide stable employment.  
For example, by providing grants and other supports WCI helped a system-controls manufacturer shift its production process from a batching model (where it built inventories to fill anticipated orders) to a just-in-time delivery system employing “lean technology” (eliminating waste and improving the flow and assembly of materials).  As a result, the company no longer has to grow or shrink its workforce abruptly in response to changes in production orders.  
3.  Links to social networks 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
Some organizations strive to link entrepreneurs from socially excluded groups to broader business/social networks.  Many small business owners from minority backgrounds lack access to social networks and mentors enjoyed by those from the mainstream.  Social networking or mentoring efforts typically link such entrepreneurs with individuals or groups of business owners who can provide advice and access to certain markets.
Chambers of commerce are the most recognizable providers of social networking opportunities for all businesses.  More targeted alternatives have emerged in recent years, such as Runners Club, Springboard Enterprises, and CEO Councils.  These programs usually combine community building, mentoring, and direct training and/or technical assistance for would-be entrepreneurs.  
Example 1: Springboard Enterprises
Springboard Enterprises is a national not-for-profit organization that promotes women’s entrepreneurial development through alliances, partnerships, and direct programming.  Its activities include targeted education and coaching, strategic connections with investors, community-building efforts, and venture capital forums that showcase women entrepreneurs.

【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


4.  Cluster or sector development
Cluster or sectorial development involves enhancing the competitiveness of an industry or product in a specific market.  A prime example of a cluster is the winemaking industry in Northern California.  The most obvious elements of this cluster are the vineyards that grow grapes, process them into wine, and then bottle and sell the wine.  But many other entities are also involved: suppliers, regulators, and distributors—an industry infrastructure.  Cluster development strategies aim to boost whole industries by investing in and strengthening this infrastructure.
Example 1: Workforce Innovations Networks (WINS)
WINS is a collaborative effort of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, the National Association of Manufacturers, and Jobs for the Future.  It was established to support partnerships between workforce development organizations and employer associations that help improve the competitiveness of local businesses.  National and statewide industry associations often engage in similar projects.
【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

Example 2: Hand Made in America
Hand Made in America was launched in 1994 to develop a new economy for the mountains of western North Carolina, a region encompassing 12,000 square miles and 23 counties.  It is using a cluster development approach to replace the region’s traditional economic bases of manufacturing, tobacco, and timbering with a place-based economy focused on local crafts.  
The crafts sector was chosen because of its strong legacy in North Carolina, a heritage that offered a significant competitive advantage over other regions in the United States.  Additionally, an economic impact study confirmed that crafts contributed approximately $120 million to the region’s economy.  Craft production activities require very little infrastructure, have a low risk of technological obsolescence, and cannot be outsourced.  Hand Made’s approach injects his regional heritage into all elements of the economy, including education, housing construction, employment training, and business development.  

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


Example 3: Regional Economic Development (RED) Group
The RED Group is a public-private consortium in Minnesota consisting of business groups, foundations, education systems, public-sector agencies, nonprofits, and two foundations: the McKnight Foundation and the Blandin Foundation.  It does not manage or implement any specific economic development initiatives, but serves as a venue for sharing information and ideas among partners.  
Most importantly, the RED Group champions initiatives led by community foundations and community development organizations, organized around economic clusters that relect the specific strengths or competitive advantages of a given area: biosciences, health care, financial services, information technology, manufacturing, or renewable energy.  It seeds these initiatives at the grassroots with some funding, and then advocates on their behalf with government agencies, education systems, and the private and nonprofit sectors.Through these businesses La Mujer Obrera has created 60 jobs, trained and facilitated employment for more than 150 residents with limited English  proficiency, and generated over $1.75 million in earned revenues. In 1998, La Mujer Obrera launched El Puente Community Development Corporation to provide new sources of social, educational, and economic opportunity for the El Paso area, through enterprise development, bilingual on-the-job training, and access to technology.
【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

 
原文出处:
http://ncsu.edu/enitiative
 
以鼓励企业家创业精神体制战略
 
成功的小型企业的发展,需要克服许多重重障碍。最关键的障碍是区域之间的信息的沟通。非营利组织成功地鼓励企业家的精神往往采取一种体制策略,重点是克服一个或一个以上特定的壁垒。虽然有不少具体的体制战略,他们可以分为以下六个办法:
1 .技术援助
2 .市场准入
3 .联系到社会网络
4 .集群或部门的发展
分别为这些战略中,"发动机内"可以被看做是核心的做法,可以提供动力战略。无论何种战略都是学会是用人,它有能力帮助企业家成功,将取决于关键的是如何实现了核心做法:主泰宁,重点市场和客户,开发他们的工作力量,建立创新合作伙伴关系。 本节将描述每6个策略,并提供本节将描述每六个战略,并提供其它一些个案研究报告,介绍他们。

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


1 .技术援助和培训
组织提供技术援助和培训计划的小型企业的目标是提高当前和想成为企业家或其雇员管理技能的组织。目标和交付机制,为技术援助和培训的内容伴随着业务技能发展,具有有针对性。提供技术援助的工作人员的小企业发展的组织或顾问,聘请他们通常会直接提供咨询和实际操作上技术上支持,这以私营企业为主。反过来说,不是提供一对一的经验,小企业发展的组织通常会提供培训课程,以一组学生或通过虚拟的自我导向的课程。然而,技术援助和培训项目上有着相同的目的:帮助企业所有者和其雇员掌握各种技能,其中可能包括:
1) 在特定类型的企业(如制造业或零售)
2) 由特定类别的企业家(如少数人或女性)
3) 在各级政府组织(例如,行政机关)
4) 以执行特定功能(如市场营销或会计学) 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]
各种各样的组织提供技术援助和培训计划的小型企业,其中包括中心相关与小企业管理局和非营利组织,如该服务团的退休高管 。其在社区学院和大学提供培训,在业务技能作为其核心课程,并通过实习及社区外展计划。小企业发展计划中通常包括技术援助和培训业务技能服务水平。组织集中于少数族裔企业家,还提供训练。
例1 :东南社区学院的小生意中心
该中心的经费是通过北卡罗莱纳州的社区学院系统中提供培训教育并支持向业主(或潜在业主)和雇员的小企业所得。该中心是:
1) 农村创业,通过行动学习(真实) 计划提供操作培训,以成为学生。
2) 业务发展中心,上海小企业孵化器房屋几个小创业企业和创投公司。
3) 1个微型企业贷款计划。
4) 该中心成为一个试验示范区为国家资产为独立演示程序,它提供金融知识培训,金融咨询.
[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

例2 :企业中心
企业中心( TEC的)已经成立15年了,总部位于费城非营利性组织,成立以加快了少数民族所有制的企业发展。它本来开始作为一个企业“孵化器”,提供技术援助,以小企业主的企业拥有TEC的先进的技术设备先进的设施。由于改变了信息和电信技术,TEC的最初的以"地方为本"的企业发展战略演变成虚拟的一个,以及更多的企业,它的服务逐渐在扩大,由30至130个。
今天TEC的用途是"门诊"方式,提供"教战战略" ,向它的客户。它汇集了一批专业的顾问,律师,会计师,技术专家,营销顾问,以及经验丰富的行政人员,他们评价企业家的营销模式的优点和弊端,以及整体企业的组织结构.现在正用顾问和他们的企业家客户于面对面的会晤。
例子3 :服装, 2000年。
服装,2000年开始在20世纪80年代中期,作为一个财团圣旧金山湾区服装部门利益相关者,包括制造商和工人。这是一个工业振兴努力旨在加强部门的竞争力与一项包括三个部分的战略:劳动力的发展,以改善工人的技能,知识和能力; 工作环境的开发,以提高公司的流程和生产率;游行和示威的模拟,以提供在生产过程中新的生产,管理和通信技术。它被安置于校园的城市学院的旧金山,其中主办的培训活动,在其先进的技术设备先进的"教学工厂" 。超过20年,服装, 2000年所提供的培训,以多3000名与会者来自300本地的服装公司,大部分是妇女,她们曾在最近移民来自中国。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    面对北美自由贸易区和全球化的影响,成衣制造业就业机会在这个国家逐渐消失。原来的服装业, 在2000年已不再满足部门的需要。演变成设计工作室,为创业公司和小型服装公司。2000年,(城市学院的旧金山)创造了旧金山中心,为应用竞争力的技术,它提供类似的支援服务,以利益相关者在制造和生物科技等行业。
2 .市场准入
创造进入市场的发展的重点放在链接之间的小型企业和主要市场。这些服务通常旨在帮助特定类型的业务:那些在某些街道或路段的城市。在特定行业,或拥有和控制某些类型的行业。
例1 :全国少数民族供应商发展委员会(NMSDC )
NMSDC ,是一个会员制组织,所造成的重大并购一家荷兰公司,以帮助满足他们的需求,为可靠,便捷以高品质量的服务。通过提供一个直接链接与美国企业和少数族裔拥有的企业,这组织创造了一个明确的途径,使小公司获得主流经济市场。其核心,NMSDC管理这一进程,证明少数族裔的商业企业,经过认证的海关业务,是指企业购买的少数供应商能提供优质商品和服务的有竞争力的价格。该NMSDC网络覆盖了一个国家牛津林研所行政长官在纽约和39个区域议会在全国推行。这些评议会证明15000多家少数族裔拥有的企业,并配合他们NMSDC的3500个公司会员(其中包括大多数美国最大的公司,以及各大学,医院和其他采购机构)。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
例2 :西环倡议( WCI )
开始于1986年,WCI是总部设在明尼苏达州农村,区域德依靠一个极不稳定的农业经济。传统经济结构的改变,农场数目在缩小,通过合并及雇用人数在农业上迅速下降。WCI决定建立一个以制造业为主的经济,在其区域内,以创造财富,而不是重新分配它通过社会服务。它是通过旅游。它最初侧重于培训工人,为特定的技术,但很快又意识到,以保持竞争力,在全球市场中,本地制造商需要重整他们如何做业务。
战略自行研制相结合的劳动力培训与企业再造工程。WCI现在各种各样的角色,代理,有时作为一个社会的基础,而且有时一个社区发展组织,提供赠款,发展筹资等问题,并提供技术援助。公司摆脱WCI的业务发展计划,更善于使用提高生产力的技术,从而能够更好地参与全球经济竞争,并提供稳定的就业。
例如,通过提供赠款和其他支持WCI帮助一个系统控制的制造商转向生产过程中,从配料模型(如它建立库存,以填补预算) ,一时间刚刚好配送系统运用"精益技术" (消除浪费和改进流程和装配材料) 。因此该公司已不再有成长或萎缩,其劳动人口突然在响应着变化的生产订单。
【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

3 .联系到社会网络
有些组织努力把联系企业家,以更拥有广泛的商业及社会网络。许多小企业主从少数民族背景的人无法获得社会网络和专家所享有的那些从主要关系网络。社会网络或辅导工作典型结合起来,与企业家的个人或团体的企业拥有者可以提供咨询,并获得一定的市场。
商会的意见是最容易识别的供应商网络社交机会,为所有企业。更有针对性替代品出现,在最近几年,如俱乐部,跳板企业,公司总裁兼首席执行官议会。这些程序通常是结合社区建设,指导,并直接培训和或技术援助,将成为企业家。
例1 :企业的跳板
跳板企业是一个国家不能为非营利组织,以促进妇女的创业发展,通过联盟,伙伴关系,并组织起来。它的活动包括有针对性的教育和辅导,战略与投资者,社区建设工作,以及风险资本讨论上。
4 .部门的发展 [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]
部门的发展是提高竞争力的产业或产品在一个特定市场。一个很好的例子是葡萄酒酿造业在北加利福尼亚州。最明显的要素是该群集的葡萄园生长的葡萄,加工成酒,然后出售酒瓶及葡萄酒。但许多其他实体还包括:供应商,管理部门,以及分销商一个产业的基础设施。集群化发展战略的目的,以推动整个产业的投资和发展。
例1 :劳动创新网络(WINS)
WINS是一个合作努力的“美国商会”,美国全国制造商协会和就业机会为未来作好准备。它的成立,用来支持伙的伴关系发展,劳动力的组织和雇主协会表示,有利于提高竞争力的当地企业。国家和全州工业协会经常搞类似的事业。
例2 :在美国手工行业
手工行业,在美国是1994年开始研制一种新型经济,为西部的深山老林之中北卡罗来纳州,一个区域涵盖12000平方公里和23个县。它是利用集群化发展的做法,以取代该地区的传统经济基础的制造业。烟草,木材与地方型经济是当地的重点。
【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

手工业部门选中,是因为它拥有强大的文化因素,在北南卡罗来纳州,一名文物提供了显着的竞争好处,超过其他地区。此外,经济的影响的研究证实,工艺品贡献约为1.2亿美元,以该地区的经济。手工业生产活动需要很少的基础设施,有一个低风险的,技术陈旧,并不能外包。纯手工的办法注入他的区域文物保护纳入所有要素的经济,包括教育,住房建设,就业培训,以及业务的发展。
实例3 :区域经济发展(红色)集团
  (红色)集团是一个公共-私人财团在明尼苏达州构成的商业团体,基金会,教育系统,公共部门机构,非赢利机构,以及两个基础:基金会和布兰丁基础。它不管理或实施任何具体的经济措施,但提供了一个场所,共享信息和思想之间的合作伙伴。
最重要的是,在(红色)集团主动带领社区基金会和社区发展组织,有组织围绕经济集群表示,区域快线等特定优势或竞争优势的形成一个特定领域:生物科技,保健,金融服务,资讯科技,制造,或再生能源。这些措施在基层的一些资金,然后再主张代表他们与政府机构,教育系统,以及私营部门和非赢利部门。 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
通过这些企业创造了60个就业机会,受过训练,并协助就业,为150多居民有限的英语水平,并产生了超过1750000美元在赚取收入。In 1998,开办社区发展公司,以提供新的来源社会,教育,经济机会,让埃尔帕索地区通过企业发展,对在职培训,并获取技术。


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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