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侗族 The Dong Nationality

时间:2016-12-05 17:44来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Dong Nationality The Dongs, with a population of 2.51 million, are mainly distributed in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi border areas. There is a spoken Dong language, and a formula for a new written system has been adopted. The Dongs mainly wor
本文服装关键字:侗族(3)

The Dong Nationality

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

    The Dongs, with a population of 2.51 million, are mainly distributed in Yunnan-Guizhou-Guangxi border areas. There is a spoken Dong language, and a formula for a new written system has been adopted. The Dongs mainly work on farms. They have a fine tradition of being courteous and friendly, respecting the old and loving the young. They also pay great attention to public works, building bridges and highways. Their music, a unity of multi-part harmonies is of great interest in both musical and literary circles, and is at the heart of traditional Dong culture.

    At the juncture of Hunan, Guangxl and Guizhou provinces is a mountainous area of lushgreen vegetation where tea-oil trees along the river-banks give off an alluring scent. There,about two and half million people of the Dong Nationality live in villages of different sizes, scattered like pearls in green valleys.

    The Dongs prefer to build their houses on hills and near rivers. Dong villages are usually bordered with huge old trees, which give an air of tranquility and peacefulness. The houses built of fir wood are of two or three stories with the family living on the top floor. The ground floor is used as animal sheds or for storing firewood and pieces of equipment. Most houses built on a slope stand on stilts so as to be raised above the ground. Clusters of such wooden structures like forests can be seen everywhere in the Dong villages, with paths of stones or cobble stones winding around to connect each household.

[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】



    The pagoda-like drum towers, seen as a symbol of the Dong nationality, are very distinctive. In the center of almost every stockaded village a drum tower is built with double eaves and suspended corridors. The square in front of the tower serves as a public meeting place where the villagers either gather to celebrate holidays and festivals by sing and dancing, or assemble to discuss important issues concerning the whole community. Because of this, the drum tower becomes the essential political and culture center of their lives.

    As a Dong saying goes, where there is a river, there must be a bridge. In fact, whenever the Dongs live in compact communities, there will be various bridges. The one that best reflects the Dongs' superb bridge--building techniques is the stone-based wood corridor bridge named Fengyu (wind-and-rain-shed bridge). It has several pavilions built onto it. The masterpiece of this style is in Chengyang, Guangxi province. It is 168 meters long, 10 meters wide and 15.20 meters high above the riverbed. Five pagoda-like pavilions stand along it. The bridge is tile-roofed and flanked by wooden railings and stools, so it looks like a long corridor. [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

    Not a single nail or screw is used in the construction of the bridge; instead, the whole wooden structure is held together by mortise and tenon joints The people's wisdom, creativity and hard work have gone into these drum towers and precisely constructed fengyu bridges. They represent the finest achievement of China's wooden architecture.

    The Dongs wear clothing made of home-spun and home-dyed cloth. Dong women wear simpie clothes mainly in green, blue, purple and white. Some wear tight trousers and high-shoul-dered blouses with big silver or pearl buttons, and some prefer knee-length front-buttoned blouses with narrow sleeves, and an apron covering the chest, short pleated skirts, waistbands and leggings. Others like loose-sleeved blouses buttoned to the side, or long skirts covering the knee and aprons. On important occasions women wear chokers of many strands, necklaces,bracelets, rings, earrings and silver ornaments of fine and decorative designs.

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]



    Traditional]y, the Dongs treat their guests to a specialty drink called youcha, or oil tea, prepared by pouring boiling tea into bowls containing a mixture of such ingredients as glutinous rice, fried peanuts, soybeans, chopped green onions, spinach, lean meat and so on. When ready, the first bowl of oil-tea must be presented to the eldest or the most distinguishing guest at table, and then to other guests and the host family. In fact, oil tea is not a pure tea but a gruel of five flavors-salty, bitter, pungent, sweet and aromatic. It has a refreshing effect besides satisfying hunger and thirst. After sharing the oil-tea, the host will usually invite the guests to join the singing and dancing around a fire.

    The Dongs enjoy expressing their feelings by singing, as they believe "songs nourish the soul as food does the body." Young men and women meet and fall in love with each other on social occasions where songs in antiphonal style are a must. "Singing in the moonlight" is such a social intercourse. During the slack seasons when there is little farmwork to do, girls begin to gather at dusk in their stilt-legged wooden houses to wait for the lads who come to start dialogue songs. [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

    The men carry home-make musical instruments with them such as the Pipa and a buffalo-leg shaped stringed instrument. When a young woman finds the partner of her heart, she beckons him in. Through the years this form of courtship was resulted in happy matches.

    The Dongs' favorite musical instrument is the Lusheng, a wind instrument with a reed that has developed a fairly sophisticated form through the efforts of several generations of Dong musicians. Lusheng dance originated in a religious rite held before spring plonghing to pray for fine weather for crops and good harvests. Now it hms become a very popular Dong recreation in which nearly a hundred participants dance to the music they are playing on the instrument.

    The Dongs are good at singing. Among the "sea of songs" is the chorus named" Grand Song." It covers a wide range of subjects and is performed by trained male or female singers.In the performance, the singers join together in multi-part harmony, with the leading performer singing the part of soprano or tenor backed by the other singers of the chorus skillfully weaving them many parts together. Dong opera, which is based on the Grand Song and enriched by the various melodies popular among the Dongs inhabiting different areas, has survived with great popularity since its creation by the Dong artist Wu Wuweica in the Qing Dynasty. [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

    With recent economic reform extending further into the region, its rich tourist and cultural resources have attracted people from all over the world. This has not only benefited the Dongs' economic development, but also has increased their cultural exchanges with other Chinese nationalities. The Dong people of tomorrow will continue to develop their rich cultural traditions,reading for a new epoch with a vigorous new national identity.

 
民 族 概 况

  侗族是中华民族大家庭中具有悠久历史的一个民族,主要分布在黔湘桂鄂四省(区)毗邻地方。聚居在贵州省黔东南苗族侗族自治州的黎平、天柱、锦屏、从江、榕江、剑河、三穗、镇远、岑巩、铜仁地区的玉屏侗族自治县、万山特区,湖南省芷江、新晃、通道3个侗族自治县、靖州苗族侗族自治县和会同县,广西壮族自治区三江侗族自治县、龙胜各族自治县;散居在贵州省黔东南州的雷山县,铜仁地区的铜仁市、石阡县、江口县和松桃苗族自治县及黔南布依族苗族自治州的荔波县、都匀市、福泉县等地,湖南省绥宁、洞口和城步苗族自治县等地,广西壮族自治区融安、罗城和融水苗族自治县等地,湖北省鄂西土家族苗族自治州的宜恩、恩施、利川和咸丰等县交界处以及全国其他省(市、自治区)。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  现在侗族分布的主要地区,周代以前属荆州南境,春秋战国时属楚巫黔中郡。秦昭襄王三十年(公元前227年),秦夺楚江南地,置黔中郡。秦始皇三十三年(公元前214年),置象郡镡城县。汉高祖五年(公元前202年),改黔中郡为武陵郡,辖镡成县、无阳县、辰阳县。唐代,置有思州宁夷郡、邵州邵阳郡、叙州潭阳郡、奖州龙溪郡、象州象郡、融州融水郡、羁縻晃州、羁縻充州等。北宋,置有诚州、徽州、晃州、思州、融州等。元代,置思州军民安抚司(后改宣慰司)、靖州、古州八万军民总管府(后废)、上黎平长官司,又置福禄永从、洪州泊里、潭溪、铜鼓、湖耳、亮寨、欧阳、新化、赤溪南洞、中林验洞、龙里、八舟、曹滴、古州八万洞、诚州富盈等处15个蛮夷军民长官司、军民长官司或长官司。明代,除保留土司外,先后置靖州府、辰州府、思州府、新化府、黎平府、石阡府、桂林府、柳州府等。清代继以明制,设府、县、厅,基本废除土司。民国年间,以行政区辖县管理,一直延续到新中国建立后。

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]



  据1990年全国第四次人口普查,侗族总人口为2508624人。其中,贵州省有侗族人口1400344人,占全国侗族总人口的55.7%;另湖南省有749026人,广西壮族自治区有286900人,湖北省有63912人,散居全国其他地方有13832人。
  
  侗族主要从事农业,兼营林业。 [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  侗语属汉藏语系壮侗语族。1958年制定了拉丁字母拼音文字方案。
  
  侗族的宗教信仰多为自然崇拜和多神信仰。

【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  侗族村寨依山傍水。侗寨的房屋一般是用杉木建造的木楼,多为二至三层,在河边或山坡上的房屋大多为吊角楼。鼓楼是侗寨的标志,此种建筑吸取了汉族古代建筑的精髓,又突破了塔楼的常规,下部呈方形,瓦檐呈多角形,飞檐重阁,形似宝塔,高耸寨中。鼓楼一般一姓一座,较大的寨子有三四座以上,那是侗族人民开会娱乐的场所。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  在侗族聚居的地方有各种各样的桥。最能反映侗族人民高超建筑技艺的要数“风雨桥”。这种桥因桥上建有长廊式、可遮蔽风雨的桥屋而得名。三江著名的程阳风雨桥,被定为国家级重点文物。桥上建有5座多角宝塔形楼亭,通道两侧有栏杆,形如游廊。桥梁构造不用一根铁钉,只在柱子上凿穿孔眼以榫衔接,斜穿直套,结构精巧,十分坚固,令人叹为观止。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  侗族服饰朴素,色调以青、蓝、白、紫为主。男子多穿对襟短衣,或右衽无领短衣,包大头巾。女子上穿大襟无领无扣上衣,下穿百褶裙或长裤,束腰带、裹腿,包头帕或戴银冠及各种银饰等。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  侗族的民间手工艺制品有刺绣、编织、彩绘、雕刻、剪纸和刻纸等,大都实用美观,富有鲜明特色。刺绣是侗族妇女擅长的工艺,她们在服饰上刺绣出各种图案花纹,形象生动,色彩绚丽。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  侗族的主食是大米,山区则多食糯米。侗族还喜食酸味,有荤酸、素酸、煮酸、腌酸等,有“侗不离酸”的俗语。油茶是侗族人民的普遍嗜好,也是待客佳品,做法是用谷雨茶同糯米炒成糊状后再冲水,拌以茶油炸好的米花、黄豆、花生等,其味鲜美,清香可口。

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  侗族传统节日有侗年、吃新节、祭牛神节等。吃新节时,旱稻刚熟,家家尝新米饭,供奉祖先,并唱侗歌、侗戏,举行斗牛活动。

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  侗族有“饭养身、歌养心”的谚语。侗族民间音乐最有名的是“古楼大歌”,它是一种无伴奏的多声部合唱。1986年贵州侗歌合唱团赴法国演出时引起轰动,音乐界惊叹这是中国音乐史上的重大发现,从此扭转了国际上关于中国没有复调音乐(复调音乐:即若干旋律同时进行而组成有机整体的一种音乐形式。)的说法。

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


  (内容出自雅嘎热、韦鹏飞、祁崇海等编著的《中华各民族》一书。) 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

 
 

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