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柯尔克孜族 The Kirgiz Nationality

时间:2016-12-09 14:35来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Kirgiz Nationality The Kirgizs, with a population of 140,000, mainly live in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. For hundreds of years, the Kirgizs have led a nomadic life. Although still no
本文服装关键字:柯尔克孜族(2)

The Kirgiz Nationality

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    The Kirgizs, with a population of 140,000, mainly live in the Kizilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefecture of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. For hundreds of years, the Kirgizs have led a nomadic life. Although still nomadic, today they also farm. The Kirgizs have their own language. Believing in Muslim, the Kirgizs have a rich legacy in poems, stories, proverbs and fables. The famous epic "Manass" is like an encyclopedia of the Kirgizs. The Kirgiz women are good at embroidery and paper cutting. Tapestries on the wall and carpets on the floor are all woven by the Kirgiz women and the designs bear a rich flavor of their distinct ethnic characteristics.

    Situated at the foot of the Tiansban Mountain, tbe Tarim Basin where the Kirgizs live is a beautiful land of rivers and grasslands with cattle and sheep scattered throughout. The Kirgizs used to live by the upper reaches of the Yuni River. Since the 14th century, some Kirgizs started to move to the Tianshan area and have mingled with the local Turkic and Mongolian tribes, and thus formed the Kirgiz nationality.

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    The Kirgiz people have for a long time traveled around the pastures of the Pamirs Plateau and the Tianshan Mountains, so tbey have to move their homes several times a year. Most of the Kirgizs live in felt houses, which are easy to move. The pair of heavy curtains in every house is the biggest attention-grabbing feature. Ali the patterns on the curtains are embroidered by the Kirgiz women stitch by stitch. Some of the curtains have become precious works of art.

    The Kirgiz women are very skillful in embroidery. They are fond of embroidering on bed covers, hats and other ornaments, and are all experts at making curtains. Curtains are not only a decoration in the house, but also an essential part of the dowry when a girl gets married.Every Kirgiz girl makes a pair of curtains before getting married.

    The Kirgiz costume resembles features of the plateau they live on. Both men and women wear a small round cap all year round. The young usually wear red, blue or purple caps, and the old black ones. They also have caps made of sheep and fox skin, which are especially worn for the cold wea ther on the plateau.
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    The Kirgiz women have colorful dresses and decorations. They like to wear red short shirts and dresses along with black or purple sleeveless jackets and red, green or blue head wrappings.

    The Kirgiz men usually wear a sleeveless jacket over a white shirt.They hang a small knife on their leather belts, and often put on leather trousers and boots.They look very brave in their costumes.

    Meat and dairy are the main food for the Kirgizs. Shoubarou, or mutton eaten with hands,is their favorite food.

    Kirgizs are traditionally hospitable to the guests. No matter whether they know a guest well or not, they receive him warmly. If the bost isn't taking good care of his guest, he will be criticized by others. Kirgiz hosts often kill a sheep to show their highest respect to a guest.The sheep is shown to the guest before being killed. The guest is invited to eat the sheep's tail first, then other parts. The guest should take some meat to the host' s children in return.While eating, the guest should leave a little in the bowl to show that he has had enough. dedecms.com

    The Kirgiz wedding ceremony is held at the bride's home. During lhe ceremony, the bride's mother, accompanied by other women, sings a song before giving her blessing to see the bride off. After the ceremony, the people all go out to participate in celebrations such as sheep grabbing, horseracing and tug-of-war.

    During big festivals, the Kirgizs will hold a recreational game called "chasing the girl."When a girl rides on a horse and gallops away, a group of young men all run after her quickly on horsebacks. It provides a good opportunity for the young men to show their riding skills,and becomes the best way to express love and propose marriage.

    Tug of war is also a recreation that the Kirgizs enjoy, but they conduct the battle in a unique way: Back to back, two participants stand five meters apart, with the two ends of a thick rope tied to their necks respectively. When the game starts, both players lean forward and pull the rope as hard as they can. The one who drags the other across the middle line wins.
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The Kirgizs play many folk musical instruments, such as the kerke (two-stringed instrument), Pumierkamuzi (with three steel strings) and Queaoer (a kind of flute). The three-steel-string instrument is exported to the Middle East and Japan. All Kirgizs learn to play this instrument. They play it while singing about their glorious past and hopeful future.

    The Kirgizs have a rich literary tradition. The famous epic Manass is a monumental folk literary work which has attracted worldwide attention. The entire book includes 8 parts,2000, 000 lines. Because the Kirgizs have no written form of their language, the Manass was handed down generation to generation by bards. It is regarded as the Kirgiz encyclopedia.

    Today, there are many felt houses and herds of cattle and sheep scattered on the Pamirs Plateau. The Kirgizs are making full use of the natural pasture, trying to improve production conditions, promote animal husbandry and raise their living standards. The Kirgizs of the 21th century will build a much more beautiful homeland using their hands and wisdom.
民 族 概 况

  中国柯尔克孜族目前约接近15万人( 1990年全国统计时为143537人),主要分布在新疆维吾尔自治区的克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州,其余散布在伊犁、塔城、阿克苏和喀什等地区。此外,在黑龙江省嫩江流域的富裕县境内也居住着数百名柯尔克孜族人。

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  柯尔克孜族有着悠久的历史和璀璨的文化背景,以热情好客闻名于世。早在公元前3世纪,柯尔克孜族先民就已游牧生息于叶尼塞河上游地区,曾隶属于匈奴,后来一部分人迁入新疆天山地区居住。该居住区于公元7世纪正式纳入唐朝版图。

  “柯尔克孜”是本民族的自称。汉文史籍曾称之为“鬲昆”(“隔昆”)、“坚昆”、“纥骨”、“黠戛斯”、“辖戛斯”、“黠戛司”、“纥里迄斯”、“吉利吉思”、“乞儿吉思”、“布鲁特”等。1935年4月,柯尔克孜族作为该民族的正式名称,经由新疆省第二次民众代表大会通过。目前,柯尔克孜族大部分人信仰伊斯兰教,属逊尼派的哈乃菲教派;居住在新疆额敏和黑龙江省富裕县的柯尔克孜族受蒙古族影响,信仰藏传佛教。柯尔克孜语属阿勒泰语系突厥语族,有皆盖、特斯开两种方言。词汇的多源性是柯尔克孜语的一个特点。

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  成立于1954年7月14日的克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州,位于新疆维吾尔自治区西南部,自治州境域辽阔,资源丰饶。全州总面积7.09万平方千米,下辖阿图什市及阿克陶、乌恰、阿合奇三县(均为边境县市),共有38个乡镇,有柯尔克孜、维吾尔、汉、塔吉克、回等11个民族,截止1997年,全州共有人口42万人,其中柯尔克孜族12.4万人,占全州人口的29.5%,为全国柯尔克孜族的80%左右。阿图什市位于自治州中部,是自治州首府。乌恰、阿合奇两县的主体民族均为柯尔克孜族;阿图什市北部、阿克陶西部山区的居民也以柯尔克孜族为主。自治州北部和西部与吉尔吉斯斯坦、塔吉克斯坦两共和国接壤,边境线长达1170千米,有吐尔尕特和伊尔克什坦木两个边境口岸。

  自治州境处昆仑山、天山两大山脉和帕米尔高原的交汇处,境内群山耸峙、峰峦叠嶂,山地面积占90%以上,平均海拔高达3000米以上。享有“冰山之父”称誉的慕士塔格峰及公格尔九别峰的海拔均高于7500米。自治州地处亚欧大陆腹地,远离海洋,属干旱少雨的大陆性气候。由于境内山地众多,地形复杂,气候的垂直差异十分显著。海拔2000米以下的平原地带,属暖温带;海拔3000米以上的山地,属高寒冰雪带。平原与高寒地带有中温带和寒温带。年平均气温山区为6.8度,平原地区为13.2度;年平均日照2760小时;平原丘陵地区年降水量为70-120毫米,山区降水量为200-260毫米;平原无霜期为200-240天,山区只有120天。地形特点与气候因素的迭加,孕育出风情迥异的地理人文景观,既有冰雪尘封之山川,也有水草丰美、气候凉爽之高山牧场,还有宜耕宜牧的山间谷地和生机盎然的沙漠绿洲。

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  丛山峻岭的皑皑积雪,不仅涵养了丰富的水源,而且也发育了众多的河流和高原湖泊。自治州境内较大的河流有克孜勒苏河、托什干河、盖孜河、库山河、恰克玛克河、布谷孜河,年径流总量达80亿立方米,并蕴藏着346.8万千瓦的水力资源有待开发。可供开发的地下水资源达6.4亿立方米。丰富的水利资源,不仅为山间谷地与平原绿洲提供了充沛的灌溉水源,也为自治州水电事业的发展提供了极为有利的条件。珠玉般散落的高原湖泊,则与雪山冰峰交相辉映,构织出一幅风光别具的高原景观。

  自治州现有耕地65万亩,海拔1500米以下的绿洲平原与山间盆地是重要的农业区,作物可一年两熟或二年三熟,主产小麦、玉米、水稻、棉花等,还盛产甜瓜、西瓜、葡萄、巴旦杏、苹果等瓜果。阿图什所产无花果以其汁甘味美而驰名遐迩,木纳格葡萄、胡安纳杏则久负盛名,砀山梨、红富士苹果的品质也很好。

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  自治州有草场面积5000万亩,可利用草场面积4590万亩,优质草场1330万亩,人工草场16.7万亩,生长着黄花、苜蓿、茵陈蒿、孤茅草、旱麦草、三叶草、苏丹草、聚合草、沙打旺等牧草,载畜量达300万头以上,放养着绵羊、山羊、黄牛、耗牛、马等牲畜,是自治区重要的牧业基地。林地面积84.3万亩,主要分布在山区,云杉、落叶松、桦柏等生长在山里;白杨、胡杨、柳、榆、沙枣、红柳等生长在平原丘陵地区。自治州境内生长着雪莲、党参、阿魏、甘草、当归、贝母、野红花、麻黄、大黄等多种药用植物。山区则有着丰富的野生动物资源,生活在雪山上的雪鸡、雪豹、棕熊以及生长在崇山峻岭中的盘羊、青羊、猞狸等均属国家一、二级保护动物。

  自治州矿产蕴藏丰富,品种较为齐全。已探明储量的有铁、铜、铅、锌、盐、煤等。其中铅、锌储量全疆第一;铁矿石储量1.5亿吨,居南疆首位,具有发展能源、建材、有色金属等工矿业的优越条件。 本文来自织梦

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