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俄罗斯族 The Russian Nationality

时间:2016-12-09 15:17来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Russian Nationality The Russians, with a population of about 13,000, have their own language--Russian --and believe in the Orthodox Eastern Church. Most of them live in Ili, Tacheng, Altay and Urumqi in the north of Xinjiang, while some
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The Russian Nationality

[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

    The Russians, with a population of about 13,000, have their own language--Russian --and believe in the Orthodox Eastern Church. Most of them live in Ili, Tacheng, Altay and Urumqi in the north of Xinjiang, while some can also be found scattered in Heilongjiang province and the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. The Russians living in towns are mostly engaged in the service business, handicrafts, transport, and other commercial occupations. In rural areas, they are involved in farming and animal husbandry.
    Along the peacefully flowing Ili River in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region, live an ethnic group of people--the Russians, whose ancestors crossed the border to settle in China. In the former Soviet Union, the Russians form a majority but exist in China as a minority group. Over 13,000 Russians are now living in Ili, Tacheng, Altay and Urumqi in China's Xinjiang Province. They have been in the country for more than 300 years. 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    The Russians put a great deal of emphasis on education. Wherever they settle, they set up schools. The schools run by the Russians who moved to Ili Xinjiang in the 19th century were considered highly prestigious in the Middle East. Being well-educated and able to use the language of the indigenous people, they were admired especially 'by the youths of the other ethnic groups in the region as early as in the 1930s and the 1940s. The worshipping complex for the former Soviet Union remains up to now. About sixty percent of the Uygur vocabulary, especially that related to modem politics and economy, are borrowed from Russian.
    The importance the Russians attach to education is due to the high social strata they are from. The first Russian immigrants were the Gilkaks. Then came some businessmen and diplomatic envoys in 1851, followed by the third wave of immigrants composed of military servicemen and civilians. The next group were mainly the spouses of the Russian Chinese who returned to China after the Second World War. All the immigrants had a good educational back ground. Understanding the essential role education plays in the development of a person' s personality and intellectual competence, as well as in the promotion of his or her social status, they always give a overwhelming priority to education.

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


    When the Russians immigrated to Xinjiang, they brought along with them some sophisticated farming tools, improved crops and livestock species as well as advanced techniques of animal husbandry. Today, the potatoes, tomatoes and cucumbers that are popularly grown in Xin jiang, the famous Ukraine white pigs, the cows of Dutch origin, and the Atuo hybrid oxen, are either introduced or cultivated by the Russians. They employ technical means to improve the growth of fruit trees and have consequently contributed to Xinjiang (known as the "country of fruits") many ameliorated varieties of fruits: the juicy and tasty lemon, crabapple, the big Winter Fruit and the Lunch Fruit. The Russians are not only expert in agriculture, but they are also dexterous. Many of them excel in handicraft and repairing trades.
    The Russians have a pleasant and cheerful character and a good sense of humor. They are particular about the etiquette of treating and entertaining their guests. Greeting and kissing are among most popular courtesies.

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


    Their most ceremonious way of welcoming guests is to offer them some bread and salt. The guests are not supposed to enter the house of the host until they accept the offer by cutting a piece of the bread, dipping it in the salt and then eating it. Thus brides and distinguished guests are treated as a sign of fraternity and an expression of good wills.
    Houses of the Russians are built with clay and wood. The roof is covered with wheat straw. Each house contains one or several bedrooms, a living room and a storage room. Households in the town have an ironsheet-coated fireplace that leads up to the roof. In the countryside, the huge coalscuttle takes the place of the fireplace. All the windows of the buildings face the south so that there is adequate sunshine indoors all-year round. The Russians keep their rooms tidy and orderly. They furnish the windows with embroidered drapes, cover the tables with hand-knitted table-cloth, and the beds with floral-patterned covers.

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


    The Russians living in China have preserved the eating customs of their compatriots back in Russia. They are good at making diverse, delicious breads and cakes. Russian-style fried dishes, beef stewed with potatoes, and various kinds of soup are most popular food on their dinner table. Their favorite vegetables include cucumbers and tomatoes. Russian pastries containing such ingredients as milk, eggs, butter and jam have entered most popular recipes to be followed by the local people. The Russians' home-made sausages, smoked ham, the small sausage prepared in a special way enjoy a great popularity among the people of other nationalities.
    Russian men wear split robes and trousers, or white embroidered shirts together with baggy trousers. In winter, they dress in leather or cotton-padded clothes and put on leather hats. Women wear short jackets and floral patterned dress. Some like to wear collarless embroidered blouses to go with long skirts made of home-spun cloth embroidered with bright colored patterns. Both men and women wear leather or felt boots. Russian men living in urban areas prefer Western-style suit, loose-sleeved shirts with embroidered collars, while women like Western-style top outer garment and skirts. The leather or felt winter hats of the latter are often decorated with feathers, but in summer they wear colored scarves. [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]
    Balalaika, otherwise known as the Triangular Guitar (thus called because of its triangular resonating box), is a plucked string Russian instrument. Its strings can produce musical notes clear and melodious of four scales, belonging to soprano, alto, tenor and bass. Balalaika playing often goes with mandolin, guitar and accordion.

 

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

俄罗斯族,现有人口1.3万。俄罗斯族主要居住在新疆的伊犁、塔城、阿勒泰、乌鲁木齐等地,其中以伊犁地区较多,其余散居在黑龙江省与内蒙古自治区等地。


  中国俄罗斯族是自18世纪起陆续从俄罗斯迁入新疆等地的,多数是在19世纪到俄国十月革命前后迁入中国的;那时,他们居住的村庄被称为“归化村”,居民被称为“归化人”,1949年后,他们被正式命名为俄罗斯族。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

俄罗斯族语言属印欧语系斯拉夫语族,使用俄文。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

俄罗斯族人大多信仰东正教,一小部分人信仰基督教。

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

俄罗斯族人迁居新疆后,带来了先进的农、牧器具,引进培育了农牧业优良品种,并使用先进的放牧技术。今天新疆广泛种植的土豆、西红柿、黄瓜以及久负盛名的乌克兰大白猪、荷兰奶牛、阿托套种牛等,都是俄罗斯族农牧民引进或培育的。他们利用米丘林学说改造果木品种,在新疆培育了美味多汁的柠檬、海棠、大冬果,午餐果等,为“瓜果之乡”新疆锦上添花。俄罗斯族人不仅善于经营农业,而且 心灵手巧,很多人擅长手工业和各种修理业。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

俄罗斯族人性情开朗幽默,待人接客讲究礼节。问候、接吻是他们最普遍的礼节;他们最隆重的礼节是用面包和盐迎接客人,来客须用刀子切下一块面包沾少许盐吃下后方可进屋,这种礼节多用于迎接新娘和尊贵的客人,象征友谊和善意。 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

俄罗斯族人的住房多为土木建筑,屋顶用麦秸覆盖;房屋分为卧室、客厅和储藏室。城市的住房里都安有直通屋顶的铁皮大壁炉,农村则是上圆下方的大烤箱。窗户一律向阳开凿,使屋内四季保持充足的光线。屋内摆设非常整洁,窗户上、桌上和床上都盖有绣花窗帘、编织台布和抠花床围等,使整个房间显得清新淡雅,富有艺术美感。屋外院子里种满各种花草树木,春天花香四溢,秋天果实累累,清雅幽静,充满生机。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

俄罗斯族的饮食依然保持着传统风味,他们制作的面包、糕点品种繁多,味道鲜美。他们特别喜欢吃黄瓜、西红柿等营养丰富的蔬菜。他们制作的拌有牛奶、鸡蛋、黄油、果酱的点心为当地其他民族所仿效。俄罗斯族牧民家庭生产的熏肠、熏火腿和小香肠深受各族人民的欢迎。

【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

中国俄罗斯族男子喜欢穿开衩长袍、长裤,或穿白色绣花衬衫和灯笼裤,戴八角帽;冬天穿皮衣和棉衣,戴皮帽。妇女穿短上衣和花色连衣裙,也有的上穿无领绣花衬衫,下穿自制的白色大长裙,上面绣着色彩鲜艳的图案花纹。他们无论男女都喜欢穿高筒皮靴或毡靴。居住在城市的俄罗斯族男子,多数喜欢西服,衬衣为宽袖,衣领绣有花纹。妇女穿西服上衣及西服裙,冬季戴呢帽或皮帽,呢帽上多插羽毛为装饰,夏天则戴头巾。

【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

巴拉来克是俄罗斯族的弦乐器,因共鸣箱为三角形,故又称“三角琴”。三角琴有四度定弦,有高、中、低音等不同规格。音色清脆明亮,经常与曼陀林、吉他、手风琴等合奏,深受青年人喜爱。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

《渔夫之歌》是俄罗斯族的叙事歌曲,全曲歌词达十段,叙述渔夫三个儿子的爱情故事,特别是小儿子在爱情上的悲剧性结局尤为感人,歌曲为二部合唱,音乐情调深沉含蓄,深受俄罗斯族人民的喜爱。

【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

俄罗斯族重视教育,他们走到哪里就把学校办到哪里。在中国的俄罗斯族人中知识分子比例较高,不少人在大、中学校教授俄语,或在国家机关从事翻译工作。他们在新疆又学会了其他民族的语言,因此深受周围各民族人民的尊重与爱戴。

[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

(内容出自雅嘎热、韦鹏飞、祁崇海等编著的《中华各民族》一书。) 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】


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