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裕固族 The Yugur Nationality

时间:2017-04-10 14:51来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Yugur Nationality The Yugur nationality has a population of 12,000, with the majority living in the Yugnr Autonomous County in the south of Gansu province, and the rest distributed over the YellowEarth Castle district in Jiuquan of the
本文服装关键字:裕固族(3)

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    The Yugur nationality has a population of 12,000, with the majority living in the Yugnr Autonomous County in the south of Gansu province, and the rest distributed over the YellowEarth Castle district in Jiuquan of the same province. The Yugurs speak a language belonging to two groups of the Altaic family--the Turkic group spoken in the eastern part of the area and the Mongolian group in the west. Livestock raising is their main occupation. The Yugur people excel in weaving and embroidering. They believe in Shamanism and Tibetan Budlhism.
    To the southwest of the Hexi Corridor in Gansu province, the Qilian Mountain lies across like a sleeping dragon, giving life to the dully unbroken stretch of land in the Corridor. On the pastures at the foot of the mountain, the Yugur people who call themselves 'Rouhur" live a simple and peaceful life.
    The Yugurs are a nomadic people. Animal husbandry makes up a main part of their economy. Favorable natural conditions in the Qilian mountain area and oasis in the Hexi Corridor provide ideal grazing land. The easily-dissembled tents are their shelter. Old-styled Yugur tents are cone-shaped, propped by several poles, but many non-traditional ones take after the square surfaced-Mongolian yurts. The Yugurs' home are simply furnished, with the family shrine put on the upper part of the central pole facing the door, the kitchen range set up in the middle of the room. To both sides of the kitchen range are seats laid with felt rug and animal skins for men on the left and women on the right. On arable farms and at the livestock breeders' settlement, people mostly live in the flat-roofed, mud brick houses that are warm and clean. 内容来自dedecms
    Vast stretches of exuberant prairies in the region help make the Yugurs an open, generous people. There, every visitor can feel the warmth and hospitality shown by them. They welcome their guests with kadag(a long piece of white cloth presented to express great respect and wishes of good luck for the guests) and "off-the-horse" toasts. Buttered tea, steamed rice paste and dairy products are the major part of the diet for pastoral people, while farm people eat mainly grain products and vegetables. Mutton served hot and eaten with the fingers is a special treat for guests.
    The Yugurs keep the tradition of wearing their national costumes. Yugur men usually wear high-collared, long robes buttoned on the right side and tied with a violet or blue waistband, tube-shaped felt hats with a flat top, and high leather boots. Most Yugur women dress in high-collared long gowns to which they add a sleeveless jacket. Like men, they also wear hats, but their hats are more attractive. It is made of felt pressed from white wool, with a black edge in the front, and an upturned back brim and a flat front brim. Red tussles hang down from the top. When worn on the head, it looks like a trumpet turned upside down.

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    The hats of married women have strings of pearls hanging from the inside. The hair of married women is combed into three braids: two were tied to a belt(a special headdress), hanging over the chest, and the third one down the back. The belts are inlaid with colorful pearls, small silver ornaments, coral and shell ornaments to form beautiful designs.
    Meadows and riversides are ideal places where young Yugurs go to express their love. Nevertheless, marriage means to them a serious, big event. To a Yugur girl, nothing in her life is more sacred and exciting than the ceremony of "putting on the headdress." On the wedding day, the bride's mother does the hairdressing for her daughter and helps her put on the headdress. It is just like the traditional song: "Time for wearing the wedding veil comes as the sun rises in the east. Like the prettily spotted deer with many-branched antlers, our bride will be finely dressed. My dear, sooner or later, you will have to set up the big tent for your own family and take over the housework as a hostess. So don' t be sad and miss this good time for wearing the headdress." copyright dedecms
    Reluctant to leave, the bride gets on a white horse and heads for her future-husband's with the escort of her brother. The white horse stands for the heavenly white elephant in legendary Yugur tales. Before they start off, the bride's parents have to toast the party escorting her.
    The groom's family welcomes the bride's team with as much hospitality as possible. When the "off-the-horse"toasts are presented to the guests, people from both sides enter a big tent to attend the solemn ceremony where the groom puts on the wedding hat. He steps on the design formed by scattering rice on the ground, which is believed to be able to bring an everlasting happy marriage to the couple. Afterwards, an uncle of the bride's begins to recite the words concerning the creation of the world, the origin of marriage, the obligation of the newlyweds to wait on their parents, as well as their long-life faithfulness to each other. Then he chants the blessings of a happy life for the young couple. Now, it is time for the newlyweds to toast all the guests in presence, first to the elderly and then to the young. People enjoy themselves to the full by singing and dancing, and staying up all night.

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    As a nomadic people, the Yugurs have a special affection for the horse. They take pride in owning a handsome horse. A large-scale horse race is held in the Yugur region every year. The horse race attracts people from every part of the region. Many skillful riders, bringing along with them their beloved horses, come from afar to participate. Two sorts of competitions are carried out at the race, one for firmness and steadiness of horse steps, the other for speed. The horse that wins is decorated with colorful ribbons and led by its proud owner, to walk around for show.
    The Yugur people excel in singing and dancing. They love to express their thoughts and feelings by means of songs. They first invite guest to the appetizing buttered tea, and then to roast mutton eaten with the fingers. The guests are presented with the best part--chest meat. At the same time, the host and hostess sing their toasts in turn to each of the guests, expressing their best wishes for the visitors on behalf of the whole family. Inspired by the passionate warmth on the part of the host family, the guests can not help joining in the singing. 本文来自织梦
    Having witnessed many upheavals in the past, the Yugur people cherish a peaceful life. The Hexi Corridor, once a flourishing part of the "Silk Road," is regaining its past glory. With the development of Chinese economy, changes are also taking place on the beautiful Yugur prairies anticipating a new era.
民 族 概 况

  内容来自dedecms
  裕固族是中国人口较少的民族之一。目前全国裕固族总人口正在接近1.5万人(在20世纪50年代以前,裕固族人口发展基本处于停滞状态,1953年全国人口普查时裕固族仅有3,860人;到1964年增加为5,625人,1982年已达10,569人;据1990年第四次全国人口普查资料统计,全国裕固族总人口为12,279人,其中甘肃省有11,809人,而作为民族自治地方的肃南县和黄泥堡乡分别有8,820人和988人)。主要分布在甘肃省张掖地区肃南裕固族自治县和酒泉市黄泥堡裕固族乡。其余散居在兰州和新疆哈密、昌吉等地。

  裕固族自称“尧乎尔”(Yugur),此称呼与今天的“维吾尔”(Uygur)和历史不同时期的“回鹘”、“回纥”、“袁纥”、“畏兀儿”等皆为同源汉语音译词。事实上,今日的裕固族与维吾尔族有着共同的历史渊源关系。在裕固族正在形成过程中,元代曾称其为“撒里畏吾”,明代则称“撒里畏兀儿”,清代又称“锡拉伟古尔”或“西喇古尔黄番”等。1954年,肃南裕固族自治县成立时,经过裕固族人民的充分协商讨论,一致同意用与“尧乎尔”音译相近的“裕固”(兼有汉语富裕巩固之意义)作为全民族统一的新的民族称谓。 织梦内容管理系统
  
  裕固族主要分布在祁连山北麓和河西走廊中段。其中,祁连山区主要分布有肃南裕固族自治县皇城区、康乐区和大河区裕固族;河西走廊中段平川区主要是肃南裕固族自治县的明花区裕固族和酒泉市黄泥堡裕固族。分布在祁连山区的裕固族主要从事畜牧业生产,祁连山北麓是一片狭长的天然山地牧场,在历史上,自秦汉时期起,这里就是古代游牧民族繁衍生息的理想场所。肃南裕固族自治县总面积约23,887平方千米,其中可利用草原面积约1,800平方千米,绝大多数草原都分布在高寒山区。海拔多在2,000米以上。分布在河西走廊的裕固族分属张掖和酒泉两个地区。其中肃南县明花区属戈壁绿洲草原地带,那里的裕固族仍然以畜牧业为生,而黄泥堡裕固族则主要从事农业生产。在总体上,裕固族是一个游牧民族,畜牧业经济是其社会经济的主体。但随着时代的发展变化,裕固族的经济形态逐渐发生了一些结构性的变化,这就是在逐步实现定居化的同时,发展了农耕经济,如在新中国成立前,黄泥堡裕固族就已经过渡成为农耕民族,而新中国成立以后,这种发展又在逐渐加快。这就使得现代裕固族的经济形态具有了一定的多重性。

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  裕固族所处的生存环境主要有两大类型,即祁连山北麓的山区和河西走廊的平川地区。前者位于青藏高原北部边缘地带,属半干旱高山气候区;后者则处于著名的丝绸之路的交通要道上,属于大陆性季风气候区,裕固族在这块不连片的戈壁绿洲上,从事着农业经济或畜牧业经济。
  
  裕固族养的牲畜以绵羊、山羊、牦牛、犏牛、黄牛、马和骆驼为主,还有少量的驴、骡等。有趣的是,他们居住的各地几乎都有自己牧业方面的“名牌产品”。民间俗谚说:“水关的驴,杨哥的马,皇城的羊毛赛棉花;白银的山羊,大岔的牛,明花的骆驼力量大”。

  裕固族文化基本上属于北方游牧文化的范畴。除汉文化之外,裕固族文化中包含有明显的蒙古和藏文化的许多成分。
  
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  裕固族具有悠久的历史和古老的文化。一般认为,裕固族主要来源于唐代后期(公元9世纪中期)西迁到河西走廊的甘州回鹘人。其族源可追溯到魏晋南北朝时期的敕勒或铁勒,秦汉时期的丁零。他们初到河西走廊时,依附于当时统治这一地区的吐蕃。并在名义上归附于唐王朝。大约在公元900年前后,甘州回鹘人攻占了甘州城(今甘肃张掖),并建立了甘州回鹘汗国。11世纪初,该汗国被西夏吞并。在甘州回鹘人控制河西走廊的一个多世纪里,甘州回鹘人利用古代中西丝绸之路交通要道,不仅快速发展了自己的经济,同时为促进当时的中西经济文化交流做出了积极贡献。  
  甘州回鹘汗国灭亡以后,余部四散。一支投奔青唐(今青海省西宁一带),后来融合于当地吐蕃;一支入居北宋境内,逐渐融合于当地各民族;另一部分回鹘人——大概是甘州回鹘的主要组成部分则退处沙洲以南地区,继续过着游牧生活。此后直到元朝时期的裕固族先民的历史,在汉文史料中的记载十分稀少。仅有个别的记载说,大致在今甘、青、新三省区交界地区,活动着被称为“黄头回纥”的部落。历史研究表明:“黄头回纥”大体上就是唐末五代时期甘州回鹘的后裔,也是元代“撒里畏吾”人的先民。 “撒里”(sara)即“黄色”、“黄头”,“畏吾”即“回纥”。
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  公元1226年,蒙古大将速不台出兵攻下撒里畏吾地区。从此,在裕固族的形成过程中,开始受到了蒙古族文化的强烈影响。不仅撒里畏吾人被纳入到了蒙古汗国及元朝的长期的统治之下,而且,许多蒙古部落也随各宗王镇戍该地区而进入到了撒里畏吾人地区。蒙古族百姓与撒里畏吾人基本上在同一地区游牧,这样就使在裕固族先民创造的回鹘文化中,又融入了许多蒙古族文化的重要内容。这种文化融合的过程一直持续到了明代。
  明代史料中,称裕固族先民为“撒里畏兀儿”。明洪武三年(公元1370年),明王朝遣使持诏谕镇守撒里畏吾人游牧地区的元宗室宁王卜烟帖木儿,后又封卜烟帖木儿为“安定王”,并陆续在撒里畏兀儿人地区设立了安定卫、阿端卫和曲先卫;在撒里畏兀儿人与蒙古族杂居的地区设立了罕东卫、赤斤蒙古卫、沙洲卫和罕东左卫,史称“关西七卫”。各卫的最高统治者仍然是元朝遗留下来的蒙古族及其后裔。在明代,回鹘民族的一支与古代蒙古人长期生活在一起,两种文化的交流融合,在共同的“撒里畏兀儿”这一民族称谓下,这支回鹘人也越来越不同于从前的回鹘人。同时,当地的元代蒙古族后裔也日益有别于早期的蒙古族。古代的回鹘人与蒙古人在长期交往过程中,相互影响,日益接近,相互吸收对方的优秀文化,部分蒙古人学会了回鹘语,同时,部分回鹘人也学会了蒙古语。由于各地蒙古人的势力不尽相同,因此,在长期的经济文化交往中,古代回鹘人所受到的蒙古文化的影响程度也有所不同。但是,作为一个新的民族共同体却在明代中后期基本形成。

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  16世纪初,东部蒙古永谢布酋长入居青海并袭扰撒里畏兀儿诸部,加上吐鲁番伊斯兰教势力的不断东扩以及蒙古瓦剌部的南下袭扰,使得安定卫、曲先卫、阿端卫、罕东卫部众不得不大规模东迁入居嘉峪关以内。裕固族先民陆续东迁后,明王朝就将他们安置到了肃州(今酒泉)南山和甘州(今张掖)南山地区,这大体上也是今日裕固族居住的地区。
  清代裕固族普遍接受了藏传佛教,并广泛吸收了藏文化,一批黄教寺院在当地兴起。清政府按照裕固族各部落所处的地域,将裕固族划分为“黄番七族”即七个部落,并封授了各部落的头目、副头目及“黄番七族总管”,并赐以黄马褂和红顶蓝翎帽。但在清代直至民国年间,裕固族的社会经济似乎趋于衰落状态,人口急剧减少。清初划分“黄番七族”时,约有6,000多人口,但到中华人民共和国成立前夕,所剩人口不足3,000人,濒临民族消亡的边缘。
本文来自织梦

  共和国的成立和民族政策的有效实施,使裕固族人民获得了新生。1954年2月肃南裕固族自治县成立;4月,黄泥堡裕固族乡成立。从此,裕固族历史进入了崭新的篇章。
  通过半个多世纪的建设,裕固族地区的社会经济面貌已发生了天翻地覆的变化。肃南裕固族自治县的裕固族曾是一个纯畜牧业民族,而且当时的畜牧业生产水平很低,不仅畜种品质差,而且恶劣的自然条件也不允许畜群的大量繁殖,因此也只能十分勉强地维持简单的生活。1954年以后,整个经济结构得到了彻底调整,20世纪五六十年代建立了皮革厂、被服厂、农牧具修配厂、地毯厂、奶粉厂等。80年代以后,乡镇企业异军突起,蓬勃发展。到1989年底,全县乡镇企业已发展到160多家,其中采矿业的发展更是效益突出,铜矿、煤矿、萤石矿等已成为当地的支柱性产业。进入90年代以后,裕固族地区的工业经济又呈现出新的态势。充分利用本地资源优势,发展特色产品,如鹿产品系列,包括各种品牌的茸血酒、鹿茸、鹿血、鹿肉制品、鹿胎膏等,成为深受当地各民族群众喜爱的滋补营养品。 本文来自织梦
  进入90年代以后,裕固族中已有4人获得了硕士学位,这是裕固族历史上的一个零的突破。更让当代裕固人自豪的是已有3位裕固族同胞在国内重点大学攻读博士学位,这同样也是该民族历史上零的突破。
  现在,裕固族大体上使用三种语言:东部裕固语(又称恩格尔语,属蒙古语族)、西部裕固语(又称尧乎尔语,属突厥语族)和汉语。新中国成立后,没有本民族书面文学的局面已被打破,裕固人开始用汉语来进行民族文学的创作活动。到80年代以后,一批高等院校的裕固族大学生开始了一种自觉的民族文学的创作活动,其中以他们的诗歌、散文创作较为活跃和集中。大学生们以及他们在走出校园以后的文化传播和社会实践活动,极大地促进了裕固族现当代文化的繁荣与发展(主要资料来源:国家民委民族问题研究中心编《中国民族》,郝文明、王铁志主编,中央民族大学出版社,2001年3月版)。
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