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塔塔尔族 The Tatar Nationality

时间:2017-04-10 14:59来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Tatar Nationality The Tatar nationality, with a population of over 4,800, consists of people who immigrated to Xinjiang from Kashan, Xiemilieqi, Zaisang and other places in Russia in the 19 the century. They have their own language, usi
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The Tatar Nationality 内容来自dedecms

    The Tatar nationality, with a population of over 4,800, consists of people who immigrated to Xinjiang from Kashan, Xiemilieqi, Zaisang and other places in Russia in the 19 the century. They have their own language, using the Uygur written scripts. They believe in lslam. Most people live in major cities in Xinjinag. Their cultural and educational undertakings are quite developed, so intellectuals are numerous. Tatar singing and dancing are widely enjoyed in the region.
    For a long time the Tatars have been living with the Uygurs and the Kazaks, so they are closely related. The languages of the other two nationalities are also used in the Tatars' everyday conversations and writings.
    The Tatar nationality is one of the few nationalities which have relatively less population. Her 4,800 people mainly distribute to Yiling, Tacheng and Urumqi in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Some scatter in Bu'erjin, Qitai and major cities in South Xinjiang. 本文来自织梦
    The Tatars usually live in flat-roofed houses enclosed in a courtyard where they plant fruit trees and flowers. Since they need to heat the house with firewalls or fireplaces, their walls are quite thick. The house is spacious and bright inside. Tapestries are hung over lightly painted walls and carpets are spread on the floor. Most of their furniture is of European style.
    "Gubangdiai' and "Yitbailixi" are unique foods of Tatar flavor. The former is a pastry made from rice, cheese and dried apricot, the latter rice, pumpkin and meat. For holidays and banquet occasions, they make various European refreshments, which are good in color, smell and taste, to entertain the guests.
    "Keerxima," a special Tatar drink similar to beer, is brewed with fermented honey and hops.
    The Tatars eat neither with their hands nor with chopsticks. They use spoons. When their Uygur or Kazak friends invite them to dinner, they always take a little spoon with them. 本文来自织梦
    Tatar costumes have a distinct characteristic. Both men and women love to wear embroildered shirts. The collar, front and cuffs of the shirts are embroidered with X-shaped patterns in pretty harmonious colors. Over the shirt, they usually put on a black vest. The men prefer black and white to any other colors. Their clothes are black and white, so are their caps. In summer, they wear black and white embroidered small caps, in winter black curly fur caps. The women like white, yellow and purple dresses. They wear all sorts of gold or silver ornaments and colored caps decorated with beads.
    The Tatar people are good at singing and dancing. In XinJiang, whenever there are ceremonies and weddings, no matter for which nationality, there are always Tatar music, Tatar folk songs and Tatar dances. People say that the Tatars are shining stars in ceremonial and cultural activities among all the brotherly nationalities in Xinjiang.
    Tatar songs and dance music are wide-spread. The melodies of the songs are often smooth and magnificent. The rhythm is at first moderate, then gathers strength, and in the end becomes fervent. When the enthusiastic atmosphere reaches a certain degree, there are often shouts and whistles, which push the feeling of happiness to the climax. Dance music has become an essential accompaniment when youths of different nationalities dance together. The music gives expression to their rich emotions and sentiments of love.

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    According to the tradition, women often play the leading roles in Tatar dances. They always choose a picturesque place for their grand meeting held every spring-"the Saban Festival," or "the Plough Festival." Both men and women put on their best clothes, bring their instruments and gather at that place. They congratulate each other, singing and dancing while enjoying the beautiful scenery. They also compete each other in horseracing, tug-of-war and wrestling. They sing and dance to their hearts' content until they become intoxicated.
    Their cultural and educational undertakings have begun fairly early, therefore intellectuals dominate a high percentage among the people. At the end of the 19th century, they had already established some religious schools in Yining, Tacheng and other places, teaching Chinese, arithmetic and other general knowledge courses. Yining Tatar School established in1949 was one of the earliest new schools for the minority nationalities in Xinjiang. Tatar educators teach not only in schools founded by their own nationality but also in schools founded by other nationalities. Some go down to the countryside and establish schools in the pastoral area. They have made a lot of contributions to the dissemination of science and culture.

塔塔尔族概况

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  中国塔塔尔族人口目前已超过0.5万(1990年第四次全国人口普查统计时共有4,921人),是中国境内人口较少的民族之一。通古斯语“塔塔尔”,在历史上曾有“达怛”、“鞑靼”等不同译名。中国塔塔尔族主要分布在新疆维吾尔自治区的伊宁、塔城、乌鲁木齐市,另外一些人散居在阿勒泰、奇台、吉木萨尔及南疆的各主要城市。 织梦好,好织梦

dedecms.com

  塔塔尔族主要是由伏尔加河畔的土著部落、操突厥语的保加尔人和钦察人以及跟随成吉思汗之孙拨都西征的蒙古-鞑靼人逐渐融合形成的。中国的塔塔尔族就是他们的后裔。新疆的塔塔尔族是19世纪二三十年代先后从沙俄统治下的喀山、乌法、图曼、西伯利亚、乌拉尔等地迁来的。
  塔塔尔族信仰伊斯兰教,属伊斯兰教中的逊尼派。
  塔塔尔族的服饰十分讲究,他们的传统饮食也十分丰富,独具民族风味。塔塔尔族的房屋多用土坯、砖块、木材、石块等建筑材料;多住套间,房外一般都建有围墙,自成院落。塔塔尔族在各地建有一些具有欧式和本民族风格的建筑,这些建筑物以其外形美观、内部宽敞明亮、结实耐用等特点而受到各兄弟民族的青睐。
  塔塔尔族多在秋冬季节结婚,婚礼在新娘家举行。婚后,新郎要在女家住若干月,甚至一年或在妻子生过小孩之后再返回男家,塔塔尔族把这叫“克亦吾莱提吾”。新娘生头胎时在娘家分娩,给孩子起名,举行摇篮礼。男孩满7岁时举行割礼。

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  塔塔尔族的葬礼按伊斯兰教规定进行,但没有为死者带孝的习俗。
塔塔尔族过肉孜节、古尔邦节;传统的民族节日有萨邦节等。萨邦节多在春天举行,并开展摔跤、穿麻袋赛跑、叼匙竞走、爬滑竿、赛马等各种娱乐活动。
  塔塔尔族人民热情奔放,能歌善舞。主要民族乐器有“库乃”、“库布兹”和“巴拉莱依”等,目前使用较广的有手风琴、曼陀琳、吉他、小提琴等。古代鞑靼人舞蹈具有广泛的群众性,维吾尔、俄罗斯、乌孜别克等民族的舞蹈对它影响较大。塔塔尔族舞蹈动作活泼,节奏明快,男子多踢踏、跳跃等腿部动作,女子则多为手、腿和腰部动作,伴舞的音乐悦耳动听。
  塔塔尔语是在保加尔语和克卜察克语的基础上发展形成的,属阿尔泰语系突厥语族克卜察克语文。塔塔尔族先后使用过回鹘文和以阿拉伯字母为基础的塔塔尔文。 织梦内容管理系统
  塔塔尔族的文化水平较高。他们很早就接受了欧洲文化,并将其与本民族文化结合在一起,形成了一种新的文化。塔塔尔族的文学艺术具有悠久的历史。早在公元10世纪,古代鞑靼人就有了文字,以后又产生了以阿拉伯字母为基础的文字。在这一时期,出现了古典诗人哈里的名著《玉素甫与祖莱哈》(长诗)、《克斯克巴西》和《克尼克遗训》等诗篇。13至15世纪,又出现了库吐叱的《赫斯拉与西琳》,马合木提·保加尔的《比西凯尤里》等作品。17至19世纪,塔塔尔人的文学事业发展到了鼎盛时期。比较有名的作家、诗人有阿不都拉·托卡依、玛尔丽亚·库里、乌吐孜·伊姆亚尼、谢姆斯丁·扎克等。
  塔塔尔族的教育事业发展较早,因而其人口中知识分子所占的比例很高。早在19世纪末20世纪初,塔塔尔族就在伊宁、塔城等地开办了一些宗教学校,学校里开设有语文、算术等文化课。1949年创办的伊宁塔塔尔学校,是新疆建立最早的少数民族新型学校之一。
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