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独龙族 The Dulong (Drung) Nationality

时间:2017-04-10 15:41来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Dulong (Drung) Nationality The Dulong nationality has a population of over 5, O00 people, mainly found in the Gongshan Dulong Autonomous County of the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. They have their own spoken lan
本文服装关键字:独龙族(3)

The Dulong (Drung) Nationality

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    The Dulong nationality has a population of over 5, O00 people, mainly found in the Gongshan Dulong Autonomous County of the Nujiang Lisu Autonomous Prefecture in Yunnan Province. They have their own spoken language, which belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group of the Sino-Tibetan language family, but no written form. They are chiefly involved in agriculture, but retain their fishing tradition too. They attach great importance to their standing in the community and keeping their words is a moral imperative. To this day they have maintained their local custom of "locking no doors and taking no lost items."
    The Dulong Gorge is a magical place to people outside. Straight fir and dense pine trees cover both banks of the winding river. Here in the shade, various rare birds, animals and valuable raw materials for drugs are found. However, as soon as the Moliwang pass of the Gaoligong Mountain is blocked by heavy snow every October, the whole gorge is locked in winter stillness, awaiting the early return of spring. 内容来自dedecms
    The Dulong River starts in Cayu County in snow-covered Tibet and runs to the west of the Gaoligong Mountain in Yunnan Province. There it rushes and roars down the high mountain ridges and forms the spectacular Dulong Gorge along part of the Sino-Burman border. People living on both sides of the Dulong River believe that they are sustained by its water, so they name themselves the Dulongs after it.
    The Dulongs living by the river have built their lives round the gorge. Villages of all sizes are on the steep mountain slopes and along the river. Their houses are often two-storied wooden buildings with a ladder to go up and down. People live on the second story and their livestock is kept downstairs. Each hearth in the house symbolizes one little family unit – married sons and daughters don't separate from their parents; they just set up a new hearth in the house.
    The Dulongs have a varied diet. Different grains provide the staple, and they also enjoy all sorts of wild game of the mountain. They are good at catching fish in the rushing current of the Dulong River, too.
织梦好,好织梦

    Dulong tapestries can be seen everywhere as house decorations. They are woven by hand with colorful threads spun from cotton and flax, and are soft and well designed. Cloaks made of these beautiful tapestries have become their unique traditional costume. Dulong men like to carry hunting tools such as a cross-bow, quiver and chopper because hunting has always supplemented their income in the past.The women like to wear long-sleeved upper clothes and long skirts. They sometimes tie a flower-patterned linen apron around the waist. Their leg wrappings are also made of linen cut in strips.
    In the past, girls aged 12 or 13 were tattooed in the face to show that they had come of age. It was said that the tattoo design of a beautiful butterfly was chosen because the souls of the deceased turned into butterflies. Whilst these beautiful insects hovered over the gorge, the Dulong girls pierced their faces with indelible butterflies using bamboo needles and indigo ink. 织梦好,好织梦
    Their relatively closed natural environment has enabled the Dulongs to maintain their old imple folkways through the centuries. "Respecting the old and protecting the young" and "living in harmony" is not at all empty talk for the Dulongs. Wild game caught must be divided equally and it is shameful for one person to enjoy it alone. If one family is in difficulty, all their neighbors will come to help without being asked.
    The Dulongs are known for being as good as their word. They never lock their doors when they go out. They store the harvested grain on slopes far away from home. In order to lighten the burden when they trudge over long distances, they usually hang their haversacks for the return journey from the branch of a tree. No one will touch others' belongings. "Everything has a owner, and never pick up someone else's lost property on the road" are admirable traditions the Dulongs have kept.
    The Dulongs love singing and dancing. Perhaps because the hunters in the depth of the mountains used to feel lonely, or maybe because their young wives in the wooden buildings missed them too much, the Dulongs got used to expressing their innermost feelings through a string instrument called the "Mangguo." This can be played solo or in unison, and the music is soft and sweet. There is also a special dance to go with it. dedecms.com
    Their annual traditional holiday is called "Kacuiwa." It is held on a lucky day chosen from the last month of the year by eiders in the villages. After worshipping the mountain gods comes the festive joyful "bull-robbing banquet." As the gongs and drums resound to the skies, everyone starts to sing and dance. Kacuiwa used to be a rite performed to celebrate victory, but now it has become a festival when the whole valley is caught up in joy and fun.
    The Dulong Gorge is steep and cruel,but it is also beautiful and gentle. Now when groups of their young people travel beyond its rough mountain paths,when butterfly tattoos have disappearedfrom the Dulong girls' faces, their ancient gorge too is quietly undergoing changes. Once so faraway, the Dulong Gorge and stories of the hard life there are coming closer to us day by day.
民 族 概 况

copyright dedecms
  独龙族是我国少数民族中人口较少的民族之一。全国独龙族人口共有5825人(1990年),云南省为5536人,其中71%聚居在独龙江流域,22.6%分布在怒江峡谷中游,其余的散居于澜沧江上游等地。独龙族聚居区山高谷深,群峰环抱,沟壑横阻,交通极为险峻。独龙族主要聚居在云南省怒江傈僳族自治州贡山独龙族自治县独龙江流域的河谷地带。生活在被称为“神秘河谷”的独龙江两岸的独龙族人民,受江水滋润,以江为名,于是称为独龙族。

  独龙江乡以孔当行政村为界,可分为孔当以上地区、孔当以下地区和以孔当行政村为中心的孔当地区。孔当以上地区与孔当以下地区之间的差异比较明显。孔当以下地区气候湿热,普遍住篱笆房;孔当以上地区气候较为寒冷,普遍住木板房或垛木房。篱笆房便于通风透气纳凉,木板房和垛木房较为保暖御寒。从独龙族妇女的文面来讲,孔当以上地区的人文面比以下地区的更普遍,而且文型的花样更精巧,文刺的面积也比以下地区的大。从语言与社会交往的角度来讲,孔当以下地区的独龙族与孔当以上地区的独龙族在语言上存在较大的差异。孔当以下地区的独龙族多与傈僳族来往,成年人多数会讲傈僳话,但不会讲藏族话,文化多受傈僳族文化的影响;孔当以上地区的独龙族解放前与藏族来往较多,老年人多数去过藏族地区,一般多会讲藏族话,但不会讲傈僳话,文化多受藏族文化的影响。孔当与献九当以及由这一带搬到贡山县丙中洛乡小查拉村居住的独龙族,历来与怒族来往较多,不少人会讲怒族话。 copyright dedecms

  独龙族以从事农业为主,但保留着渔猎的传统。他们相信万物有灵,崇拜山川、河流、大树、巨石等自然物。

copyright dedecms

  讲究信用、遵守诺言是他们的道德传统,历史上,独龙族被誉为不用锁门的民族,他们始终保持着“路不拾遗,夜不闭户”的古老而纯朴的社会风尚。 copyright dedecms

  世世代代生活在独龙江两岸的独龙族人,已把他们的生命与峡谷中的一切融为一体。

织梦好,好织梦

  独龙族的房舍多建在两岸的山坡上,依山傍水构筑成大大小小的村寨。一座座竹楼轻巧地建在陡峻的山坡上,称之为“长竹楼”。竹楼一般分为两层:下层圈养牲畜,上层住人,有独木梯上下。一个火塘象征一个家庭,子女成婚后并不分家,只在房内新设火塘。“长竹楼”有两种形式:一种称作“皆杷”,意为父亲的房屋;另一种称作“皆木玛”,意为母亲的房屋。

织梦好,好织梦

  架设藤网桥是独龙族人生活中的一件大事。每架好一座桥,人们都要身穿节日服装,敲锣打鼓,载歌载舞以示庆贺。藤网桥的结构古老而别致,它以独龙江畔特有的藤竹编织成两根索,平行栓在两岸粗壮的树干或固定的木桩上,再用山上的野藤或竹篾在两边编织成网,吊在藤索上,网底铺设比脚掌稍宽的木板或数根并拢的竿供人行走。人踏上桥后,一举足迈步,桥身就会抖动摇晃,过桥者会感觉地转天旋。外来人过桥决非易事,而独龙族人身背重物行走自如。 copyright dedecms

  独龙族人的食物丰富多彩。他们虽然以谷类为主食,但对各种山珍野味情有独钟,特别喜欢吃含有丰富淀粉的野生植物。从一种被称作“四维”的董棕树芯里挖出的董棕粉制作的食物是独龙族人最喜爱吃的食物,也是招待来宾以示热情友好的佳肴。 dedecms.com

  独龙毯作为装饰品在独龙族人家里随处可见。这种以棉麻为原料、用五彩线手工织成的工艺品,质地柔软,古朴典雅,既可美化生活,又是当地重要的经济来源。独龙毯是独龙族人民生活的必需品,白天当披风,夜晚当被,同时又是青年男女恋爱的信物,还可缝成口袋运粮盛物。精美的独龙毯已成为独龙族男子特有的传统服饰。独龙族妇女穿长袖上衣和长裙,有 时也围一件花色麻布围裙,小腿上裹麻布带绑腿。 织梦好,好织梦

  过去的独龙女子到了十二三岁便要进行文面以表示成年。她们脸上刺的是一种美丽的蝴蝶图案,据独龙族传说,人死后亡灵可变成这种蝴蝶。当峡谷里飞起这些美丽的蝴蝶时,独龙女子便用竹针和青靛汁,在脸上刺出永不消退的蝴蝶花纹。 dedecms.com

  一年一度的独龙族传统节日称作“卡雀哇”,是在每年最后一个月由各村寨的长老们择吉日而定的。神圣的祭山神活动之后是隆重而欢乐的“剽牛宴”,这是整个峡谷沸腾的日子。 织梦内容管理系统

  喜爱歌舞的独龙人经常用“芒锅”(一种口弦)倾述内心的喜怒哀乐。音色柔和甜美的口弦,可独奏也可齐奏,此外还有专门的口弦舞。 织梦好,好织梦

  独龙族地区的资源十分丰富,还有多种珍贵植物被列为国家重点保护对象。这里还是大理石矿的密集地,彩色大理石“贡翠”是天然的大理石珍品。

织梦内容管理系统

  (内容出自雅嘎热、韦鹏飞、祁崇海等编著的《中华各民族》一书。) 织梦内容管理系统

 

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