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鄂温克族 The Ewenki Nationality

时间:2017-04-10 15:38来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Ewenki Nationality Compared with other ethnic minority groups in northern China, the Ewenkis have a small population: only about 26,000. With a language of their own, the Ewenki people believe in Shamanism. Most of them live in the Ewen

The Ewenki Nationality


    Compared with other ethnic minority groups in northern China, the Ewenkis have a small population: only about 26,000. With a language of their own, the Ewenki people believe in Shamanism. Most of them live in the Ewenki Autonomous County of the Hulunber region, Inner Mongolia, and some others in Heilongjiang province.
    "Ewenki' is a self-given name meaning "people living in big mountain forests." At different times in history, the people were called "Suolun,' "Tongus," or "Yaknt." "Ewenki" came into use when the People's Republic of China was founded.
    Due to the different areas where they live, the Ewenkis' occupations and life-style vary a great deal. Some are engaged in animal husbandry, some in agriculture and others live solely or partly by hunting.
    The Ewenkis have long been inhabiting a tract of hilly land that branches off from the Bigger Xingan Mountain Ranges. It is covered with dense primeval forests and numerous rivers run across it, with lakes and swamps scattered all over.

    The Ewenkis who live in the Erguna virgin forest make a living by hunting. Long before settling down there, they tracked wild animals by their footprints and roved the primeval forests all year-round with their reindeer herds. They did not have a fixed dwelling place. Their traditional houses are called Cuoluozi or Xierenzhu in the Ewenki language. Three meters high and four meters in diameter, the conic structure resembles very much the Orenqis' Xierenzhu. It is simply framed with larch logs and covered with birch bark in summer and deer hides in winter.
    Although the Ewenkis rarely live permanently in one place, they do have fixed shelters: their warehouses in the vast forests. They are built in a unique way. First, at roughly the same height, the tops of several trees are chopped off. These trees should be apart from each other at about the same distance. Then heavy logs are laid onto the trunks left of the chopped trees to make a warehouse suspended from above the ground. Another big log with cut steps serves as a ladder. In the houses are usually stored some food, hunted games, clothes, working tools and cooking utensils, etc. The door always remains open so that the stores in the house are easily available to other hunters in time of need. Nevertheless, the warehouse is kept for public use in the hope that the user may return the borrowed things duly. 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    Reindeer plays an essential part in the Ewenkis' daily lives--especially in their hunting work--and the Ewenkis have a long history of keeping them. The animal, originally wild, looks like the horse in the head, with horns like the deer's, while its trunks take the shape of the donkey's and hoofs the bull's. It is mild in temper, docile and adept in walking across dense mountain forests, swamps, as well as in deep snow. The Ewenkis have tamed the animal and made it an enormously helpful instrument to hunt and live with. After the Orenqis took to horses as their main aide, the Ewenkis have become the only people in North China to keep and use reindeer. Almost every part of the animal yields treasures: its meat is edible, milk drinkable, and the skin useable for leather; its antlers and genitals make precious medicine. Reindeer are the main source of the Ewenkis' economic income. Due to the convenience they have brought to the daily lives of the Ewenki people, reindeer are widely loved and honored with the title of the "life-boat in the sea of forests." 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    Characteristic of the clothes worn by the hunting people, the Ewenkis' national costumes, especially their winter garments, seem inseparable from animal hair and skin. In winter, they wear jackets and pants made of long-haired, thick rawhide, together with hoots, hats and gloves all made from animal skin. Men's hats are conic, with red tassels on the top, and the surface sewn with blue cloth. Women' s headdress is made by stringing together two blackcloth tubes decorated with silver laces. Ornaments like earrings, fingerings and bracelets are also part of the Ewenkis' traditional dress.
    The Ewenkis worship fire as they would a god. They never eat meat and drink without throwing a piece of meat into the fire and then sprinkling a cup of liquor over it. At the wedding ceremony, the newlyweds must pay obeisance to the god of fire. The Ewenkis have many taboos with respect to fire, particularly about the use of a pointed poking stick to poke into the fire, extinguishing it with water, throwing unclean objects into it, and women's stepping over or stamping on it. 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    Mikuolu, a traditional Ewenki festival, is observed in Zhenbaer District in Inner Mongolian. On the 22nd of May, the day of the jubilant celebration, people are finely dressed in their ethnic costumes. Men join the horse racing to lasso a two-year-old sport pony. When the pony is trapped, all the participants dash towards it in order to cut off either some of its mane, or the tip of its tail, or some pieces of its ears, or to brand the horse on the right side of its legs. The intensely exhilarating race provides a good opportunity for Ewenki herdsmen to display their horsemanship. At a special ceremony for cutting sheep's ears, elder people give their children and grandchildren female lambs as gifts and wish them a happy prosperous life blessed with a property of abundant sheep. Afterwards, each family hosts a banquet to entertain their relatives and friends, where they declare the number of young domestic animals born during the year. When one banquet is over, the next begins in another household. So a new round of feast starts afresh. When night falls, a bonfire is set up and young men and women gather round it singing and dancing joyfully. 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    Ewenki's folk dance, called "Swan Dance," originated from a fascinating legend. Long long ago the Mongolian Wailarte tribesmen, trapped by their enemies, had run out of food and ammunition. One day at the twilight, a big flock of swans flew past. Their penetrating wails echoed loud in the sky and wakened the enemies from their sound sleep. They took the noise for the coming of the Wailartes' aid troops and all fled in a frenzy of panic. The Wailarte tribesmen at last won the battle. Ever since then, swans have been regarded by the Ewenkis as birds of good luck. The Ewenki people love white color as they love the pure, white swan of which they make their totem. Women worship the bird so much that they often imitate its flight in their improvised dance on the grass. Sometimes, men join the dancing. Their footsteps and parade vary in accordance with the vigorous rhythm of the chanting "Girgoo, git goo, girgoo..."
民 族 概 况

  鄂温克族是中国人口较少的少数民族之一,1990年第四次全国人口普查时为26379人。鄂温克族主要分布在内蒙古自治区和黑龙江省。其中在内蒙古自治区有23367人,占全国鄂温克族总人口的88.8%,黑龙江省有2571人,占9.8%,其余散居在全国各省、市和自治区。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


  鄂温克族有自己的语言,鄂温克语属阿尔泰语系满-通古斯语族,分为海拉尔、陈巴尔虎旗 和敖鲁古雅三种方言,无本民族文字,牧区通用蒙古文,农区和山区通用汉文。


  鄂温克族大部分信仰萨满教,牧区有些人还信仰藏传佛教。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  由于居住地不同,鄂温克族人生产、生活方式也有较大的差异,有的从事畜牧业,有的从事农业,还有的从事狩猎。 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  生活在额尔古纳左旗原始森林中的鄂温克族人长期以来以狩猎为生,在没有定居之前,他们终年追随着野兽的足迹,赶着驯鹿,游荡在原始森林中。他们在森林中没有固定的住所,“撮罗子”是他们的传统民居。“撮罗子”,鄂温克语叫“希椤柱”;它的外形如同鄂伦春族的“仙人柱”,高约3米,直径约4米,是一种圆锥形建筑物,实际上是用松木杆搭成的圆形窝棚,也是一种非常简单的帐篷。“撮罗子”的遮盖物随季节变化有所不同,夏季一般用桦树皮,冬季则用麂麂:一种小型的麂。鹿皮包裹。鄂温克族人虽无固定住所,却有固定建筑,那就是他们的仓库。他们的仓库极为奇特:先将相邻的两棵大树砍去树梢,做为柱子,然后用木头垒成一间悬空的仓库,地上斜竖一根砍有阶梯的木柱为梯。仓库中存放食品、猎物、衣服、用具等,他们从不上锁,其他猎人可任意取用,事后如数归还即可。 [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]



  鄂温克族的服饰也体现着狩猎民族的特色,他们的衣裤鞋帽都用兽皮、兽毛制成,特别是冬天的服装,更选择皮厚毛长的兽皮作原料。他们的帽子尤具特色,男人的帽子为圆锥形,顶尖有红缨穗,用蓝布做帽里,女人的头饰是一黑布做的套筒,上面缀有银质的链子;妇女都戴耳环、戒指、手镯等。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】



  鄂温克族人极其好客,认为家里来客人是喜事,无论认识与否,他们都把来者视为贵客,总是拿出最好的东西款待客人。 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  鄂温克族人敬火如神,在喝酒、吃肉前,先要向火里扔一块肉、洒上一杯酒,然后才能进食 。举行结婚仪式时,新婚夫妇要敬火神。鄂温克族人对火还有许多禁忌,比如不许用带尖的铁器捅火,不许用水泼火,不许向火里扔脏东西,不许女人从火上跨过,不能用脚踩火等等 。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  每年5月22日的“米阔鲁节”是鄂温克族民间传统节日,流传在内蒙古陈巴尔虎旗鄂温克族当中。这天,人们要举行赛马、套马比赛,还要给当年产的羊羔剪耳朵,作为记号。按照传统习惯,老人要送给后辈人母羊羔,祝福他们今后羊群如云、生活幸福,还要设宴款待亲朋好友,宣布他们当年幼畜的数字。 【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  鄂温克族人崇尚天鹅,以天鹅为图腾。天鹅舞是鄂温克族的民间舞蹈,鄂温克语叫作“斡日切”。妇女们闲暇时喜欢模仿天鹅的各种姿态,自娱而舞,逐渐演变成一种固定的舞蹈--天鹅舞。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  (内容出自雅嘎热、韦鹏飞、祁崇海等编著的《中华各民族》一书。) [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】



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