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珞巴族 The Lhoba Nationality

时间:2017-04-13 06:38来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Lhoba Nationality The Lhobas mainly inhabit the Lhoyu area in southeastern Tibet, with an investigated population of 2, 300. They have their own language, which belongs to the Tiheto-Burman group. They dont have a written form, and thei
本文服装关键字:珞巴族(5)

The Lhoba Nationality

    The Lhobas mainly inhabit the Lhoyu area in southeastern Tibet, with an investigated population of 2, 300. They have their own language, which belongs to the Tiheto-Burman group. They don't have a written form, and their dialects vary greatly from tribe to tribe.Some people can speak and write in Tibetan. Their main occupation is farming, but hunting and gathering provide a considerable portion of their livelihood. They traditionally believe in primitive religion and Tibetan Buddhism.
    Lhoyu, a fabulous land of 70,000 square kilometers, is the ancient home of the Lhobas. It is located at the southern foot of the Himalayas eastern end, stretching south from the mysterious high Nanjiabawa Mountain to the Assam Plain in India.
    Lhoba is what Tibetans call the people living in Lhoyu. It means "southerners" and includes many different tribes such as Bogaer, Ningbo, Adi, Tajin.

[本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]


    The Lhobas living in the rural district of Nayu, Milin County, along the northern slope of the Himalayas belong to the Bogaer tribe. They moved from Manigan district dozens of years ago, and they still lead a traditional life here. They customarily live in blockhouses made of stone and wood which are solid, durable and protective. They often paint various auspicious patterns on their doors and walls in the house. Animal heads hanging on the walls are not only a symbol of wealth but also a display of their hunting skill.
    They have always lived on corn and Jizhua rice, most often roasted. However, they are presently accustomed to the Tibetan diet: eating Zamba made of highland barley and drinking butter tea.
    In Nayu area, the Lhobas' clothing style is particularly practical. They make their clothes mainly from plant fabric and animal skin. Men usually wear homemade sheepskin coats or long Tibetan pulu robes, over which a black vest called Namu is pulled. They wear a brimmed bearskin hat. The brim is wrapped with a ring of bear fur, and hanging at the back is a patch of bearskin with eyeholes. The hat is said to be capable of confusing the fowls when they go hunting. 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】
    The women like to wear little collarless short-sleeved garments woven with flax together with close-fitting knee-length skirts and ankle leggings.
    Both men and women like to wear ornaments. They grind a bluish stone into beads, and hang them around their necks. Every adult has several strings of the beads. Some people wear dozens of strings on festivals.
    In the past, due to the scarcity of farm land and relatively low levels of production skills, their agricultural harvest was too meager to meet their year round needs. Consequently, hunting became an important part of their economic activities. During the off-seasons, groups of Lhoba men often went hunting in the mountains. They have learned many ways to trap game and fowl, and use poisoned arrows to deal with big fierce animals they encounter. Hunting in the dense wild forests is, in any case, a dangerous and adventurous job for every hunter. It is in fact a grave challenge on their virility.
[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

    Perhaps because they do not have a written language, or perhaps because the magical Himalayas have given them unending artistic inspiration, they have created a rich oral literature.An ancient ode Creation of the World , so desolate and forceful, has been passed on from generation to generation. Various touching love songs are always the best way for young men and women to express their love. And the lively and melodious flute tunes seem to present eternal eulogy to their beautiful homeland.
    Low production levels and contingency in hunting make the Lhobas highly dependent on nature. In their religious belief in which nature is worshipped, sky, mountain, water, tree,wind, rain and thunder are all endowed with human intelligence, and they communicate with humans through wizards and witches. For thousands of years, the Lhobas have gained food and fortune from nature and they pay homage to nature through pious worship. In a way,they have identified their spiritual belief with the high mountains and deep valleys of the Himalayas.
【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

    Now when another spring comes around quietly to Lhoha villages in the depth of the mountains, many beautiful government funded houses have already risen above the ground. Village schools have also been constructed to promote their educational levels. A brighter future is unfolding before every Lhoba's eyes.

民 族 概 况

  珞巴族是中国人口较少的民族之一,据1990年在中国实施普查区域的统计,共有2322人。主要分布在西藏东南部的广大珞渝地区,以墨脱、米林、隆孜、林芝、察隅等几个边境县最集中,另有少数散布于拉萨、山南等地、市。 【服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  20世纪60年代以前,珞巴族尚无本民族统一族称,而以部落名自称和彼此相称,如“博嘎尔”、“坚波”、“崩尾”、“崩如”等。“珞巴”是藏族对他们的称呼,意为南方人。1965年,中华人民共和国国务院确认并批准了“珞巴”这一族称。

【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞巴族的语言属汉藏语系藏缅语族,各地方言差别大,没有本民族文字。解放前,只有极少数人通晓藏语和藏文,通常以刻木、结绳记事。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞渝地处喜马拉雅山南麓的高山峡谷地带,区内山脉呈南北走向,地势北高南低,逐级下降。河流多为南北纵贯,两岸陡峻,滩多流急。气候属亚热带和准热带气候,雨水充沛、土地肥沃。受地形影响,气温、气候的垂直变化十分明显,珞巴族谚语称:“一山有四季,十里不同天。”

  珞巴族自古就在西藏的塔布、工布、白马岗和喜马拉雅山南麓的广大地域生息。珞渝地区这种变化多端的自然景观和地理环境,是珞巴族物质生活、精神生活的源泉和基础,对该民族的社会生活、文化特性和文化心理、审美情趣及文学与艺术创造等,直接或间接地产生了某种程度的制约和影响。同样,这种复杂的自然地理环境,亦为动、植物的生长、繁衍提供了优越的条件。这里野生动植物种类繁多,物产极为丰富。在密林中,生息着虎、豹、熊、鹿麂、獐、水獭、野猪、猞猁、野牛、豪猪、麝猫等野生动物及鹰、鹦鹉、喜鹊、文鸟、画眉、杜鹃、孔雀、野鸡、啄木鸟、猫头鹰、食蜂鸟、犀鸟等鸟类,此外还有各种有鳞鱼、无鳞鱼及众多的爬行类、两栖类动物;出产天麻、贝母、黄连、党参、三七、麝香、鹿茸、熊胆等珍贵的药材;生长着楠、樟、桂、栲、松、杉、柏、桦、藤和竹等。农作物品种则有水稻、青稞、玉米、小麦、鸡爪谷、荞麦、高粱、大豆、绿豆、四季豆、马铃薯、芝麻、甘蔗及白菜、油菜、南瓜、土豆、辣椒等;这里出产的香蕉、菠萝、柑桔、柚、桃、梨、葡萄、西瓜等水果弥补了西藏高原的不足。矿产资源有煤、云母、铁、铅、皂石、水晶等。 [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  珞巴族主要从事农业。采集和打猎在生产和生活中也占相当的比重。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞巴族的传统住房是石木结构的碉房,坚固耐久且具有很好的防御功能。他们在门上或屋内的墙壁上,画有许多避邪求福的图案。而墙上挂着的动物头首,既是财富的象征,也是对猎手打猎能力的炫耀。 [本文来自服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn]

  珞巴族的服饰充分体现着粗犷豪放的风格,野生植物纤维和兽皮是他们服装的主要原料。男子一般穿自制的羊皮上衣或藏式氆氇长袍,外罩称为"纳木"的黑色套头大坎肩,戴熊皮压制的有沿盔帽,帽沿上套一个带毛的熊皮圈,毛向四周伸张,帽后缀一块梯形带眼窝的熊皮,据说这种装扮在围猎时能起到迷惑猎物的作用。妇女们则喜欢穿麻布织的对襟无领短袖上衣,下身穿过膝的紧身筒裙,小腿裹上裹腿。珞巴族男女都喜爱佩带装饰品。他们颈上的串珠,是用一种青蓝色的石料磨制而成的,每个成年人都有几串,盛装时可佩戴几十串。在长期的发展过程中,珞巴人形成了赞美和歌颂力量与勇敢的审美观念,这种审美观念突出地表现在他们的服饰上。

[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞巴族人传统的主食是玉米和鸡爪谷。烧烤是他们最常见的加工食物的方法。“达睐妈拜”是一种黏坨状的食物,做成后用手抓食,这是珞巴族人喜爱并常享用的一种食物。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  藤网桥是珞巴族人用特有的技术,以藤索为材料编织而成的。西藏自治区墨脱县德兴区横跨雅鲁藏布江上的藤网桥是历史最久的一座,距今已有300多年。远远望去,这座藤网桥好像一条在空中飞腾的蛟龙。

【摘自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞巴族在长期的狩猎、采集和农业生产活动中,培养了对自然现象敏锐的观察力。他们根据月相盈亏、寒暑冷暖、草木荣枯等自然现象的变化规律来判断年月日,创造了具有鲜明地域特征的历法——物候历。珞巴族以桃树开花为岁首,月亮周期变化十二次为一年。

[服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  每年庄稼收获后,珞巴族都要举行近两天的丰收节,叫作昂德林节。节日期间全村男女身穿盛装,各家端出准备好的美酒,共享节日食品。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  也许因为没有本民族文字,也许是神奇美丽的喜马拉雅山给予的无穷艺术灵感,珞巴族人的口头文学十分丰富。篇幅宏大、别具一格的古老史诗《节世歌》苍凉浑厚,一代代传唱不息。“加金”是珞巴族民间最古老的曲调,广为流行,曲调欢快流畅,极富节奏感,是珞巴族人对家乡的永恒歌颂。 【内容来自fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

  珞巴族自古就在西藏的塔布、工布、白马岗和喜马拉雅山南麓的广大地域生息。 [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】





   [服装学习网fuzhuangxuexi.cn】

 
 
 
 
 
 

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