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基诺族 The Jinuo (Jino) Nationality

时间:2017-04-10 15:59来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Jinuo (Jino) Nationality The Jinuos, with a population of over 18,000, live principally in Jinghong County of the Xishuangbanna area, yunnan Province. The nationality boasts a very long history. Jinuo is a self-given name meaning people
本文服装关键字:基诺族(4)

The Jinuo (Jino) Nationality 织梦内容管理系统

    The Jinuos, with a population of over 18,000, live principally in Jinghong County of the Xishuangbanna area, yunnan Province. The nationality boasts a very long history. "Jinuo" is a self-given name meaning "people who respect uncles." Generally speaking, the Jinuos are pantheists who practice religion in its primitive form and worship nature as well as their ancestors. The Jinuo language, for which there is no script, belongs to the Tibeto-Burman family of the Sino-Tibetan language system. The Jinuos used notch wood in order to record event.
    The Jinuo nationality is named after the Jinuo Mountain in Xishuongbanna -- a subtropical area blessed with a favorable climate and covered with exuberant virgin forests. The murmuring streams and brooks, and the thick sweet-smelling woods make life there enjoyable. For thousands of years the Jinuo people have been living in the peace and serenity of this paradise.

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    Generation after generation the Jinuos set up their homes in the primeval forest. Their houses are two-story buildings made of bamboo and wood, with the ground floor used as animal sheds or as storage. Meals are cooked at the fire on the upper floor. At dinner time the whole family sits at the table by the fire. According to a traditional Jinuo custom, the head of the family has to face the fire while the guest stays closest to it. Over dinner, the host frequently offers to fill the guest's rice howl, but each time he makes it a fairly small amount. Now and then, he helps the latter to the dishes on the table.
    Jinuo women are expert at spinning and weaving. In the open by the outskirts of the stocked village or on the path between the fields, they can be found spinning smooth yarn with the spindle out of the snow-white cotton. The yarns are fed into the loom to make the famous home-spun textile Kondao Cloth. Junuo men usually wear trousers or shorts, black and white checkered, collarless jackets opened on the front with no buttons. The back of the jacket is embroidered with patterns of the sun. 织梦好,好织梦
    Jinuo women dress in front-opened, collarless jackets checkered in blue, red, yellow and white over a embroidered bra in the shape of a heart. Besides, they wear short skirts laced with red cloth on the edge, and pointed cap with its back reaching the shoulders like a cape.The well tailored dress in its harmonious colors looks best when worn especially by young Jinuo women.
    Lush-green bamboo groves are seen everywhere in the Jinuo Mountain and a large variety of bamboo trees grow there. Jinuo men excel in weaving bamboo articles. With thin strips of the wood, they can make excellent handicraft -- different kinds of utensils from cigarette boxes to thread and needle containers. The ingenious Jinuos have in fact created an admirably unique bamboo culture. The Jinuos always carry along with them some bamboo articles or bambooplaited pieces of equipment.
    Qiker, a percussion instrument made of bamboo is one that must be played at music festivals and on the occasion of joyful celebrations. It was first used by hunters to convey messages when they captured wild animals. According to the legend, once they succeeded in hunting, the hunters would chop off several bamboo tubes that can produce different scales of sound. Then they would dick the tubes while making their way back to the stockaded villages. People in the village could tell by the different manners of sound what the caught animals were. Later, the bamboo tubes were refined and developed by some folk artists into today's seven-scaled instrument that sounds pleasant and melodious. 内容来自dedecms
    In the 12th month of the lunar calendar, when flowers are in full bloom in the Jinuo Mountain, the whole village indulges in merry-making. On hearing the beats of the cattle skin drums, people can not help dancing what they call the "Sun drum-Dance." According to the Jinuos' legendary tales, in remote antiquity the heaven and the earth were in a mass and there were floods everywhere. Nobody but the brother Banhi and his sister Banhong survived the disaster by seeking refuge inside a huge cattle skin drum. For the purpose of keeping the circle of human life going they had to get married and latter gave birth to many sons and daughters,and thus became the first ancestors of the Jinuos. Therefore, every December in their calendar the Jinuos, full of gratitude for the "Sun-drum," would celebrate good harvests by beating cattle skin drums and dancing happily around them.
    To the Jinuo people, the sun-drum is not only a musical instrument, but also a most divine object to worship. Every stockaded village has a couple of sun drums -- the Father drum and the Mother drum. Around its top and bottom edges are some wooden bars in radiation, symbolizing sun rays. The Jinuos see the drum as an incarnation of divine spirits and therefore take it as the symbol of their village. They worship it in hope of good harvests and prosperity.
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    Ceremonies are held for boys and girls turning fifteen years old to mark the beginning of an important stage in their lives. From this age onwards, they are supposed to dress and behave as an adult. At the ceremony, parents give their sons and daughters a whole set of working tools and clothes especially prepared for this occasion beforehand. Girls have to wear adult-like hair dress.At a "grown-up" meeting, the patriarch of the village leads the youngsters in singing their national epic, gives them lectures on moral norms and codes as well as those about hardship of life and labor. Their formal village membership then starts at the moment the ceremony is over. That means they now have the right to participate in all public activities and are free to make social contacts and even seek their lifelong partners. On the other hand, it also means they have to bid farewell to the carefree boyhood or girlhood to take up more and more social responsibilities.
    The Jinuos, so accustomed to the closed, quiet life of the mountainous area, feel no longer content with an idyllic country life. With the wisdom and a daring courage unique to the mountain inhabitants, they are ready to open up a pathway to their national development.
民 族 概 况

  基诺族自称“基诺”,“基”为舅舅,“诺”为后边,意为尊敬舅舅的民族,他称“攸乐”。现有人口18022人(1990年),主要分布在云南省西双版纳傣族自治州景洪市的基诺山基诺族乡和景洪市勐旺乡补远村公所,其余散居在附近勐养镇、允景洪镇三达山、大渡岗乡及勐腊县勐仑乡等地。 内容来自dedecms

  基诺山是基诺族的发祥地及主要聚居区,基诺山地处横断山脉无量山余脉丘陵地带,总面积599平方千米,为北热带边缘纯山区。最高海拔为亚诺山1691米,最低海拔为巴卡村附近小黑江面550米。这里山峦起伏,川流纵横,主要山脉有亚诺山、杰卓山、巴达山、茄玛山等,主要河流有小黑江、南星河、南本河、莱阳河、巴卡河等。最高气温为34.9℃,最低气温5.8℃,年平均气温18℃-20℃,年降雨量1580.5毫米。全年分为干、湿两季,其中5至9月为湿季。

  基诺乡东接勐腊县勐仑镇,南连勐罕镇,西毗勐养镇,北邻大渡岗乡。森林覆盖率为67.7%,有热带雨林、南亚热带季风常绿阔叶林,有高等植物1000多种,有实用经济价值的植物2000多种,有红椿、柚木、八宝树、望天树等名贵树种,抗癌植物美登木、香料植物龙脑香、速生树种团花树等。野生动物中哺乳动物100多种、两栖类36种、爬行类60多种、鸟类420多种、鱼类100余种,还有国家级保护动物孟加拉虎、亚洲象、懒猴、长尾灰猴等种类。

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  基诺族有自己的语言,基诺语属汉藏语系藏缅语族,没有本民族文字,过去多靠刻木记事。

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  关于基诺族的族源,没有文字记载。据传说,基诺族是从普洱、墨江,甚至更远的北方迁来的,祖先是三国时期诸葛孔明南征部队的一部分,因与大部队走散而留在这里。

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  基诺族信仰原始宗教,相信万物有灵,崇拜自然,崇拜祖先,供奉诸葛孔明。 dedecms.com

  基诺族普遍喜欢住在平缓的小山坡上,住房多为干栏式建筑。干栏式竹楼分为两种:一种是有一个火塘的竹楼,内居一个父亲家庭的全体成员;另一种长方形竹楼,楼内共居着同一父系家庭数代人。干栏竹楼楼上住人,楼下圈养牲畜。 本文来自织梦

  基诺族人聚居的基诺山,属热带地区,这里各种特产十分丰富。除水稻、玉米等主食外,基诺山里的各种山珍野味也给基诺人提供了丰富的营养食品。 织梦好,好织梦

  基诺族妇女大多能纺线织布并制有著名的“砍刀布”。男子通常穿无领无扣的对襟黑白花格上衣,衣服背面正中缝上一块方形红布,上绣一朵美丽的太阳花,下身着白色或蓝色宽大的长裤或短裤。男子服装上的太阳花来源于基诺族的一个动人的爱情故事。女子上身穿无领对襟杂色小褂,下系镶红边黑色开合短裙,现在也有改穿长裙的。基诺妇女习惯裹绑腿、头顶挽髻。她们头上还戴有白厚麻布,后披翅长及肩部的披风尖顶帽,显得既庄重大方又活泼俏丽。

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  基诺山竹类繁多,基诺族男子普遍会竹编手艺。细细的竹片,经他们的巧手编出花纹美观精巧的各种工艺品和生活用品。用竹筒做的打击乐器“奇可”是基诺族喜庆和歌舞活动中不可缺少的,演奏起来音色优美和谐。

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  基诺族有丰富的史诗、故事和传说。《玛黑和玛钮》反映的是关于远古时代人类起源的洪水故事。 内容来自dedecms

  基诺族有自己特有的民族习俗、祭祀礼仪和节日。比如“上新房”习俗:父亲去世一年后,儿女们要重盖新房,意思是把自己的房子献给父亲,新居落成时要举行一次隆重的祭祀活动 。 内容来自dedecms

  每个基诺族少年长到15岁左右就要举行成年礼,并要改装易服穿戴成年人的衣饰。举行成年仪式时,父母要送给儿女全套的生产工具和成年人的衣饰,女孩子还要梳成年人的发式。成年仪式上,寨子里的长老要带领大家歌唱史诗,讲述传统的道德规范,讲述劳动和生活的艰辛。 织梦内容管理系统

  “打铁节”,基诺语称“特毛切”,这是基诺族最隆重的节日,一般于每年农历十二月举行,历时三天。节日第一天上午要举行剽牛仪式,午后寨子里的长者敲响牛皮大鼓,人们情不自禁地随着鼓点围着大鼓跳起粗犷的舞蹈,这就是基诺人欢庆丰收的"太阳鼓"舞。太阳鼓是基诺族最神圣的祭器和乐器,每个村寨一般都有两面,分公鼓和母鼓。他们视太阳鼓为神灵的化身和村寨的象征。祭祀太阳鼓,目的是祈盼它能保佑全寨人丁兴旺、五谷丰登。 内容来自dedecms

  新米节,亦称“吃新米”。每年农历七八月间,谷物即将成熟的时候,基诺族人就从田地里采集一些新谷子、蔬菜和瓜豆,再杀几只鸡,请亲戚朋友到家里共同品尝新米、陈酒、鲜肉、绿菜,同时举行一些仪式。人们边吃边唱,欢乐的歌声常常通宵达旦。 织梦好,好织梦

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