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汉族 The Han Nationality

时间:2017-04-12 19:47来源:未知 作者:admin 点击:
The Han Nationality Distributed all over Chinas territories, the Hans, with a population of over 1.2 billion,mostly live in the Songliao Plain in the northeast of the country, and on the middle and lower reaches of the big rivers--the Yello
本文服装关键字:汉族(28)

The Han Nationality dedecms.com

    Distributed all over China's territories, the Hans, with a population of over 1.2 billion,mostly live in the Songliao Plain in the northeast of the country, and on the middle and lower reaches of the big rivers--the Yellow River, the Yangtze River and the Pearl River. Since 300 A.D. the Hun people have been well known for their creativity and diligence. Agriculture plays a dominant role in their economy, and their handicraft industry is highly developed. The rich Hun culture has given birth to many notable scientists, philosophers, artists and poets who, as the nation' s elite, have had great influence on the course of Chinese history.
    The Han script, or Chinese writing, has undergone three thousand years of development to become what it is today in its simplified written form. The Han people attach much importance to etiquette. It is a traditional virtue to see that older people are respected and the young well cared for.
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    China is an ancient country whose brilliant culture spans five thousand years. On its vast land live fifty-six nationalities of which the Han are the most numerous as well as the most widely spread.
    The architectural features of the Hans' traditional residential buildings vary according to the building materials. For example, in mountain areas where there are plenty of stones, houses are often built of this material. However, on the Yellow Earth Plateau in China's Northwest, cave dwellings provide shelter for the local people. In the South, where bamboo and reed are abundant, people use these to either build or decorate their homes. In the North, particularly in Jilin province, houses tend to have big windows and doors for ventilation. The characteristic colors are white (the white-washed walls), gray (the tiled roofs), and maroon (the painted window-sills and doors). The homes of the Kejia people, who are scattered over Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian and Gansu provinces, and whose ancestors immigrated to these areas around 1,600 years ago, have remarkable style. Members of those closely related Kejia families often live in a cluster of houses built in a huge circle. 本文来自织梦
    It has been at least 4,700 years since Chinese Hans took to drinking tea. The custom of entertaining guests with tea as a sign of respect has survived to today. Tea preparations are various and complicated, so there is a assortment of teas--Taihu smoke-peas tea, Suzhou Aromatic tea and Deqing salty-orange tea from Jiangsu province, Gong Fu tea from Chaozhou,
    Guangdong province, Bone-and-Meat tea in South Fujian province, salty ginger tea in Hunan and Longjing tea from Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, to name only a few.
    The Hans' eating habits vary from place to place. Generally speaking, wheat is the staple food for people in the North and rice for those in the South. As to wheat products, more and more sorts of noodles appear on the dinner table. They come in all shapes: round, flat, triangular, macaronilike, and shredded; and in all flavours: fish, minced chicken-meat, shrimp roe, spinach, etc. They come in various ways: cold noodles served with soy sauce or sesame butter, scooped noodles served hot, stir-fried noodles, noodles boiled in soup, stewed noodles,crisp deep-fried noodles, and so on. Each has a special flavor. Of all the varieties, the ones which are enjoyed throughout China include the breakfast soup noodles from Shashi, Hubei province, country-style noodles from Pinjing, Gansu province, Beijing' s Dragon Whisker noodles, and the Dandan noodles from Chendu, Sichuan. The Hans value the art of cooking highly. They like best dishes cooked mainly with vegetables, meat, fish, poultry and eggs. Han cuisine is known throughout the world for its eight different cooking styles. The Hans also eat certain food because of the good fortune they represent. For example, around the lunar New Year's Day, people eat Jiaozi, a traditional food which is believed to bring good luck if it is eaten then, because the Chinese name for the food sounds similar to another expression meaning "to have (good luck or good fortune)." In the same way, on the fifteenth day of the first lunar month, which is also the last day for the Spring celebration, people eat puffy deep-fried doughnuts hoping for a prosperous new year, and New Year cakes for a similar symbolic meaning. dedecms.com
    As times change, so has the Hans' style of dress. Until the 1940s, most men and women wore double-breasted or diagonally-fastened tops and trousers. Colors were light in summer, but blue and black in winter. Nowadays, as people's attitudes towards dress have changed a great deal, men's clothes have shifted from the dull grayish-blue uniforms to all sorts of different styles, such as the Chinese tunic suit, and Western style clothes, while women's clothes are more diverse and colorful.
    Important Han festivals include Tomb Sweeping Day, Dragon-boat Day, the Lantern Festival and Mid Autumn Festival. Spring Festival is the biggest occasion. Traditional ways of celebrating the festival include putting up pictures of the gods which protect the household, eating Jiaozi, setting off fireworks, going to temple fairs and take part in fun activities like the Dragon Dance, the Lion Dance and Boating on Lake. On the lunar New Year Eve, some families make it a custom to stay up late or even all night to welcome in the New Year. In the next few days, friends and relatives exchange greetings or visit each other. Recently, a new form of entertainment has appeared: it is now an important event for almost every family on New Year Eve to watch Chinese Central Television's screening of the annual Spring Festival party. It is a colorful variety show--a real feast for both eyes and ears. dedecms.com
    The Hah nationality is extremely populous and its customs differ greatly from place to place.
    Young men and women mix freely and can choose their future spouse. Marriage is no longer arranged by their parents and the wedding ceremony tends to be simple yet lively. Nevertheless, in the vast rural areas, some old customs remain. The wedding ceremony is often held on a day chosen by a fortune-teller according to the couple's birth dates. On that day, representatives of the groom's family set off for the bride's home carrying the bridal sedan-chair, with the company of the joyful sound of gong and drum beat, mixed with the music of a folk woodwind instrument called Suona. The bride, dressed in brand-new red cotton-padded jacket and trousers, and new shoes made for the occasion, must be lifted into the sedan-chair by her brother in law or paternal uncle. When she gets out of the sedan-chair, she is escorted by an elderly woman from the groom's family to join her future husband in making ceremonial obeisance, known as "paying respect to Heaven and Earth." This is done before a shrine-table put in the courtyard. On the table there is a paper-covered scoop made from Chinese sorghum with sticks of burning incense planted in it. Scattered over the table are leeks, chestnuts, dates, a lock of hair and a steel measuring yard. All these have a symbolic or linguistic meaning. They represent hopes for the birth of a clever baby, and for a happy life as close to each other as the arm of a steel yard and its sliding weight. 织梦内容管理系统
    After the obeisance, the couple are ushered in to the wedding chamber. In some areas there is a custom of warming up nuptial bed beforehand by the groom's sister, in hope that the conple will maintain a life-long loving relationship.
    As soon as the wedding banquet is over, the guests will usually visit the newly weds' house and take a look at the furnishings and the dowries. On the wedding night, young friends and relatives flock into the house to have a warming party with singing and dancing. They may make fun of the couple by forcing them to tell the story of their romance and then making the two of them bit one apple hanging from a string.
    According to historical records, the nationality Han gets its name from the Han Dynasty.Before that, the people were called "Huaxia" or "Zhuxia.' They were a group of many different tribal clans merged together. Han culture belongs to the world' s oldest civilizations. It boasts a lot of outstanding achievements in many fields including politics, war, philosophy,literature, history, art and natural science. Among countless historical figures of both nationwide and worldwide influence are the historian Si Maqian, who wrote the famous Records of the Historian , and the great poets Li Bai, Du Fu, Bai Juyi and Sn Shi, who are world famous for their immortal verses. Traditionally, agriculture was the Hans' main occupation. In ancient China the family was the basic economic unit with "the men ploughing the fields and wives weaving, "as a Chinese saying puts it. Agriculture provided the nation' basic wealth and was highly advanced, especially in irrigation and intensive farming. There was also a high level of handicraft production.

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    Since the Qin and Han Dynasty (221 B.C.--220 A. D.), the Han nationality has kept in close contact with other nationalities. The People' s Republic of China owes its foundation and development to the contributions made by both Han and the other nationalities.
民 族 概 况

  在世界的东方、太平洋的西海岸,有一块古老的土地,她自西向东,地势逐渐降低,形成三大阶梯。第一级阶梯是青藏高原,海拔多在4000-5000米,其上耸立多座海拔超出7000米的山峰,以珠穆朗玛峰为世界之最。第二级阶梯是从青藏高原的北缘与东缘到大兴安岭、太行山、巫山、雪峰山之间,包括了若干高原和盆地,其中最著名的是云贵高原、黄土高原、内蒙古高原和塔里木盆地、柴达木盆地、准噶尔盆地、四川盆地。第三级阶梯是更东的低山丘陵、大平原以及大陆架,其中最著名的是江南丘陵、两广丘陵、东南沿海丘陵和东北平原、华北平原、长江中下游平原以及黄河三角洲、长江三角洲、珠江三角洲等。这就是地理学上所称“中国大陆”,也是人们俗称的“中华大地”。在这块古老的中华大地上,生息着世界上人口最多的汉族。

内容来自dedecms


  汉族的人口如果从其族源夏民族算起开始约有200余万人,历经夏、商、周三代,到战国盛时已有2000万人左右了。在汉族形成的两汉之时,汉族人口已达5000余万人,到唐代前期达到8000万至9000万人之间,到北宋大观年间达10441万余人(王育民《中国人口史》,江苏人民出版社1995年11月版)。

  元代以后,在中国统一的大趋势下,汉族人口这个雪球越滚越大。明万历二十八年(1601年)人口达1.5亿,(何炳棣著、葛剑雄译:《1368-1953年中国人口研究》,上海古籍出版社1989年版,第262页)。及至清道光三十年(1851年)则达4亿以上,到中华人民共和国成立时,其人口约6亿,到20世纪末已达10亿以上。在地域上则从黄河、长江流域向南发展到珠江流域抵台湾岛和海南岛,向东北发展到黑龙江流域,向西北发展到天山南北,向西南发展到云贵高原和青藏高原。 织梦好,好织梦

  汉族在全国分布的特点是东密西疏,据1990年的统计,全国10.39亿汉族人口约占全国总人口的91.92%,其中汉族人口占当地总人口的比例,江苏、浙江分别为99.77%、99.49%,而新疆、西藏则分别为37.58%和2.05%。

  汉族所用的汉语属汉藏语系。经过数千年的互动演化,现代汉语分为九大方言,即北方方言、吴方言、湘方言、粤方言、闽方言、赣方言、客家话、平话、晋语。

  语言学界传统认为现代汉语分为七大方言,近几年来不少学者认为广西的平话、山西的晋语应与其他七大方言并列。此外,有的学者还将闽方言分为闽南话和闽北话。这些方言有各自的分布通行地域,每个方言内部又可再分区划片,从而构成了汉语方言复杂,南北互不相通的语言状态。尽管如此,由于汉字的高度统一,对汉族具有强大的内聚作用,所以,我们似乎可以毫不夸张地说:没有汉字,就没有汉族。
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  汉族的文化丰富多彩,在其形成和发展的历史过程中,开放虚怀、兼收并蓄,形成了齐鲁、中原、燕赵、关中、巴蜀、荆楚、吴越、岭南、滇黔、闽台、松辽、徽赣等各具特色的区域文化,反映了汉族文化的多元性和多彩性。 织梦内容管理系统

  汉族自古对各种宗教信仰采取兼容并蓄的态度。天命崇拜和祖先崇拜是汉族宗教的主要传统观念。

内容来自dedecms

  历史上汉族人一部分信仰道教和佛教;后来天主教、基督教传入中国,又有一些人开始信仰这些宗教。 copyright dedecms

  几千年来,提倡以仁为中心,重视伦理教育,由孔子、孟子思想体系形成的儒家学说对汉族产生着深刻的影响。

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  汉族由于分布地区广大,其传统住房因地区不同而有不同的样式。居住在华北平原的汉族,其传统住住房多为砖木结构的平房,院落多为四合院式,以北京四合院为代表;居住在东北的汉族,其传统住房与华北基本相似,区别在墙壁和屋顶,那里的住房一般都很厚实,主要是为了保暖;居住在陕北的汉族,则根据黄土高原土层厚实、地下水位低的特点挖窑洞为住房,窑洞不仅冬暖夏凉,而且不占耕地面积;居住在南方的汉族,其传统住房以木建房为主,讲究飞檐重阁和律卯结构。由于南方各地习俗和自然条件不同,在住房建筑布局上也有差异。如丘陵山地的楼房依山而建,江浙水乡则注重前街后河,福建的土楼庞大而美观,苏州的楼阁小巧而秀丽。 本文来自织梦

  无论南方还是北方的汉族,其传统民居的共同特点都是座北朝南,注重室内采光;以木梁承重,以砖、石、土砌护墙;以堂屋为中心,以雕梁画栋和装饰屋顶、檐口见长。 织梦好,好织梦

  汉族主要从事农业,主食以小麦、玉米、稻米等为主,辅以蔬菜、豆制品和鸡、鱼、猪、牛、羊肉等副食,茶和酒是传统饮料。以大米为主食的,习惯将大米做成米饭、粥或米粉、米糕、汤圆、粽子、年糕等各种不同的食品;以小麦为主食的,习惯将麦面做成馒头、面条、花卷、包子、饺子、馄饨、油条、春卷、炸糕、煎饼等。讲究并善于烹任,是汉族的一大饮食特点。不同地区的汉族人民以炒、烧、煎煮、蒸、烤和凉拌等烹饪方式,经过长期的实践,形成了不同的地方风味。汉族的粤、闽、皖、鲁、川、湘、浙、苏等八大菜系,闻名于海内外。

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  汉族人饮茶,据说始于神农时代,少说也有4700多年了。直到现在,中国汉族同胞还有民以茶代礼的风俗。汉族对茶的配制是多种多样的:有太湖的熏豆茶、苏州的香味茶、湖南的姜盐茶、成都的盖碗茶、台湾的冻顶茶、杭州的龙井茶、福建的乌龙茶等等。 内容来自dedecms

  汉族的服饰比较复杂,从古到今,变化很大。古代服装有裙装、袍服、襦裤服等。到近现代,汉族服饰开始改变,古代服装几乎被完全淘汰,代之而起的是:男子穿简化了的长衫和马褂,头戴呢帽、皮帽、毛线帽,也有的穿西式礼服、戴呢帽;女子最初穿简化了的上衣下裙,以后流行穿改良的旗袍,也有的以连衣裙礼服。公职人员和知识分子穿中山装,城乡男女则穿对襟和大襟式的衣服。50年代,城市男女多穿蓝干部服,男女服装的区别只在于领口不同和衣袋的多少,进入80年代以后各地流行起西服、夹克、风衣、运动衫、呢大衣、羽绒服等,特别是女青年的服装更是款式新颖多样,追逐着服装时尚的新潮流。

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  汉族的节日很多,主要是春节、清明节、端午节、元宵节、中秋节等等。过“春节”又称为过年,是汉族人千百年来的传统节日,也是一年中最隆重的节日。过年时,除夕要守夜,初一要拜年。

dedecms.com

  汉族人口众多,习俗各异。如今男女婚嫁大都已移风易俗,采用简单而又热闹的婚礼。但在有些汉族地区的农村,传统的民俗至今仍然保存着。 内容来自dedecms

  据史料记载,汉族旧称汉人是因中国的汉王朝而得名,汉朝以前称“华夏”或“诸夏”。无论是在政治、军事、哲学、文学、史学、艺术诸方面,还是在自然科学领域中,汉族人民都创造了许多辉煌的业绩。 织梦内容管理系统

  汉族人民历来以简朴、富于创造精神著称。汉族历史上的经济是以农业为主,兼营家庭副业,是一种典型的男耕女织的自然经济。汉族的农业生产在历史上素来发达,尤其以水利灌溉和精耕细作著称于世,汉族的手工业也有相当高的发展水平。 copyright dedecms


  

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